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Optimize exposure using your cameras histogram

In the field, the main difference between using a film and a digital camera is the LCD on the back of the digital camera giving you the ability to evaluate an image right after exposure. You might think that viewing your pictures on that tiny LCD is a major benefit in going digital. Yes, if you try hard, you can check sharpness by zooming in on the image. The main advantage of this LCD for me, however, is to check exposure in my last photo. There is help which only the digital cameras can provide The cameras provide a way to view the result of the last photograph taken and show a histogram of the grayscale values from o (black) to 255 (white). Here the data in the shadows are lost. This is not the only problem since digital cameras show much more noise in the shadows. Once this image is corrected, extended noise would show up even in the midrange.

Hold Your Camera For Proper Shooting

The proper way to hold your camera to ensure sharp, blur-free images. (Photos Alex Revell) Digital SLR cameras are made to favor the right-handed individual. The basics of properly holding the camera begins with grasping the camera body with the right hand. You will quickly find that most of the important camera controls are within easy reach of your thumb and forefinger. The next step is to create a stable base for your camera to rest on. This is accomplished by placing the camera body on the up-facing palm of your left hand (Figure 1.13). Now you can curl your fingers around the lens barrel to quickly zoom or manually focus the lens. Now that you know where to put your hands, let's talk about what to do with the rest of your body parts. By using the under-hand grip, your elbows will be drawn closer to your body. You should concentrate on pulling them in close to your body to stabilize your shooting position. You should also try to maintain proper upright posture. Leaning forward at...

Understanding your cameras approach to flash

When you use flash, your camera automatically calculates and adjusts the flash power to match the light on the subject. This process is sometimes referred to as flash metering. Your Rebel XTi 400D uses a flash-metering system that Canon calls E-TTL The E stands for evaluative TTL, for through the lens. And the II refers to the fact that this system is an update to an earlier version of the system. So how does this little flash lesson relate to your camera Well, the exposure mode you use (P, Tv, Av, M, or A-DEP) determines whether the flash operates as a fill flash or as the primary light source. The exposure mode also controls the extent to which the camera adjusts the aperture and shutter speed in response to the ambient light in the scene.

Taking Your Photography To The Next Level

The Creative zone is the name given by Canon to the shooting modes that offer you the greatest amount of control over your photography. To anyone who has been involved with photography for any period of time, these modes are known as the backbones of photography. They allow you to influence two of the most important factors in taking great photographs aperture and shutter speed. To access these modes, you simply turn the Mode dial to the Creative mode of your choice and begin shooting. But wouldn't it be nice to know exactly what those modes control and how to make them do our bidding Well, if you really want to take that next step in controlling your photography, it is essential that you understand not only how to control these modes, but why you are controlling them. So let's move that Mode dial to the first of our Creative modes Program mode.

Kicking Your Camera into Advanced Gear

The first step to taking the exposure reins is to set your camera's Mode dial to one of the five shooting modes highlighted in Figure 5-1 P, Tv, Av, M, or A-DEP. You also need to shoot in one of these modes to use certain other camera features, such as manual white balancing, a color feature that you can explore in Chapter 6. Again, I realize that the descriptions of these modes won't make much sense to you if you aren't already schooled in the basics of exposure. If you are and you just want to know the specifics of using these modes on your camera, flip to Setting ISO, f-stop, and Shutter Speed, later in this chapter. Otherwise, the next several sections provide you with the fundamentals you need to make good use of the advanced modes.

Metadata for Photographs

Metadata provides descriptions with data. Using digital photography, metadata describes an actual photo taken. Metadata may be embedded in the actual data file or may be stored separately -either in a discreet file or in a database. With RAW files, TIFFs and JPEGs, we actually find several types of metadata Another type of metadata not mentioned above, are ICC profiles. Profiles defines how the color (pixel) values of the image are to be interpreted (see chapter 11). At present, ICC profiles are not part of RAW files, but must be attached (embedded) to photographs when they emerge from the RAW converter and should stay with the file ever after. Files containing embedded ICC profiles are called ICC tagged files.

Colour reproduction in digital cameras

In the case of gelatin silver photographic prints, it is generally believed to be the lens and film which determine the colour reproduction. However, in the case of digital cameras, it is not only the lens, but rather the process of how the light received by the image sensor is turned into an image that makes the difference in colour reproduction. It is also possible to fine-tune the colour reproduction, the white balance setting and the colour matrix selection. Digital cameras, however, do not require such methods. Instead of choosing film types for different light sources and filters for colour warmth, the white balance is set beforehand to match the lighting conditions. The digital EOS series offers preset white balance modes which can be selected for natural light, shade, cloudy conditions, incandescent lighting, fluorescent lighting, and flash photography. Not only that, but the white balance can be adjusted manually or automatically. The blue shadow-like effect seen in portraits...

How to deal with flaring and ghosting particular to digital photography

The reflective characteristics of the image sensors in a digital camera differ from those of film in that they possess a higher reflectivity as well as a characteristic known as regular or mirror reflection, which has the effect of creating flaring and ghosting inside the lens when light from a bright source enters the lens and reflects back to the image sensor. In order to resolve this problem particular to digital cameras, a new approach to optical design has already been adopted, with the goal of bringing the outstanding imaging performance of EF lenses to digital photography. This is, after all, the m ission of EF lenses in the digital age, because they occupy the core of the EOS system, whether film or digital. Many telephoto lenses, including the EF 300mm f 2.8L IS USM employ a meniscus lens to suppress internal reflection of the image that occurs in digital cameras. Many telephoto lenses, including the EF 300mm f 2.8L IS USM employ a meniscus lens to suppress internal...

Improve Your Pictures With Sound Compositional Elements

Creating a great photograph takes more than just the right settings on your camera. To take your photography to the next level, you need to gain an understanding of how the elements within the frame come together to create a compositionally pleasing image. Composition is the culmination of light, shape, and, to borrow a word from the iconic photographer Jay Maisel, gesture. Composition is a way for you to pull your viewing audience into your image and guide them through the scene. Let's examine a few methods you can use to add interest to your photos by utilizing some common compositional elements.

TTL and ETTL and EOS digital cameras

All current Canon digital cameras with hotshoes - both the D30, D60, 1D and IDs digital EOS cameras and the non-EOS PowerShot Pro 70 IS, Pro 90 IS, G1 and G2 point and shoot digital cameras - support E-TTL only. Even Canon digital cameras with internal popup flashes are E-TTL only. (though if you want to use flash with a non-EOS camera you should probably check out Kevin Bjorke's page for its limitations. Canon have also written a letter to D30 users concerning proper use of EX flash units) This means that only EX flash units can be used with Canon's current lineup of digital cameras. Older E and EZ flash units do not work correctly. You can sort of get the flash units to work in manual flash mode but no through the lens metering is possible. This is presumably a cost-saving measure. Since digital bodies lack film they can't use regular off the film flash sensors for TTL metering. The mirrorlike surface of a CMOS or CCD imaging chip has very different reflective properties from film,...

Transferring from Your Camera

Every image you shoot is stored on your camera's media card as an individual file. The file is a document, just like one you might create on your computer. Before you can do any editing of your images using your computer, you have to copy those image documents from your camera's media card onto your computer's hard drive. There are two ways to transfer images from your camera. Either plug the camera directly into your computer, or remove its media card and place it in a media reader that is connected to your computer. The advantage of a card reader is that it doesn't consume any of your camera's battery power. Also, most card readers support lots of different formats, so if you have more than one camera (say, the T1i and a small point-and-shoot) that use different formats, then you only need to carry one card reader and a cable. The T1i also ships with a USB cable that you can plug directly into your computer. This allows you to use your camera as a card reader, saving you the hassle...

Sending Your Camera in for Repair

There are three methods in the U.S. for sending your camera or other Canon gear in for repair using CPS, sending the camera to a Canon repair center, or using a local shop. The method you use depends on whether you're a member of Canon Professional Services (CPS). CPS is open to professional photographers only. You have to qualify to be accepted into the program, and if you are, there are several advantages, including faster processing of repairs.

Precautions when using digital cameras

Images taken using a digital camera can be adjusted for sharpness, brightness, contrast, and other factors using a computer. However, avoid becoming over-dependent on your computer to fix the shortcomings of your photography. The reason is that most image processing is accompanied by a drop in the quality of the image. The basics of good photography are the same for digital cameras as they are for film cameras. If your goal is to take a good photograph, it is of vital importance that you check the exposure and focus and prevent the camera from shaking. It will be safest if you only rely on computer touch ups as a final, complementary aspect of your photography, if you wish to get the most out of your EF lens's image performance.

Stock Photography

At some point, almost everyone who has more than a passing interest in photography contemplates the idea of making money from his or her images. And for those who do, their short list of ideas includes stock photography near the top. Stock photos fill the pages of popular newsstand magazines and brochures and grace posters in public places and billboards along the highways. Stock photography refers to existing images available for licensing by clients, including advertising agencies, corporations, magazines, book publishers, and others. Stock images can be marketed by individual photographers, photographer cooperatives, or by stock photo agencies. With more than 1,000 stock photography agencies and organizations to choose from ranging from the leaders such as Getty and Corbis dollar-stock agencies there is a good chance that you can make your way into stock photography. Stock agencies market the work of many photographers. Agencies negotiate with and finalize licensing rights with...

DPOF Digital Print Order Format

DPOF (Digital Print Order Format) is a standard for recording print ordering instructions to the CF card. It is for images taken with a digital camera, and you can specify which photos and the quantity to print. With a DPOF-compatible digital camera, you can do the following

Connecting the Camera to the Computer to Download Images Without Installing Software

If you are using Windows XP or Mac OS X (v10.1.5 - v10.3), you can use the software distributed with these operating systems to download images without installing the software bundled on the Canon Digital Camera Solution Disk. This is useful for downloading images to a computer in which the software is not installed.

Installation Procedures

3 Place the Canon Digital Camera Solution Disk in the computer's CD-ROM drive. 4 Click the Digital Camera Software Easy Installation button. Start installing Digital Camera Solution Disk. Close any other open applications and click OK Start installing Digital Camera Solution Disk. Close any other open applications and click OK

Downloading Images without Installing the Software

If you are running Windows Vista, Windows XP or Mac OS X (v10.3 v10.4), download images by simply connecting the camera to a computer, without installing the software bundled on the Canon Digital Camera Solution Disk. However, please note that there are several limitations. It may take a few minutes, after connecting to the camera, until you can download images. The camera information (firmware version, etc.) may not display correctly. In this case, use the software from the Canon Digital Camera Solution Disk.

Updating the D Firmware

One of the greatest advantages of owning a digital camera such as the 40D is that Canon often posts updates to the firmware (the internal instructions) for the camera to its Web site. New firmware releases can add improved functionality to existing features and, in some cases, fix reported problems with the camera. New firmware along with ever-improving software keeps your camera and your ability to process images current as technology improves. To determine if you need to update firmware, just compare the firmware version number installed on your 40D to the latest release from Canon on its Web site.

Thank you for purchasing a Canon product

With a digital camera, you can immediately view the image you have captured. While reading this manual, take a few test shots and see how they come out. You can then better understand the camera. To avoid botched pictures and accidents, read the Safety Warnings (p.10,11) and Handling Precautions (p.12,13).

What Is an SLR Anyway

When you look through the viewfinder on an SLR, you're actually looking through the same lens that is used to expose the image sensor. As in a film camera, the image sensor in a digital camera sits on the focal plane, a flat area directly behind the lens. In front of the sensor is the shutter, a mechanical curtain that opens and closes very quickly when you press the shutter button. The shutter lets you control how long the sensor gets exposed to light. Obviously, because there's an image sensor and a shutter sitting directly behind the lens, you can't easily get a clear view through the lens without some work, with the shutter and image sensor in the way. Take a look at the profile of your camera and note that the lens is actually sitting much lower than the viewfinder. If you could take a cross section of your camera, you would see that the image sensor and shutter are directly behind the lens. In front of the shutter sits a mirror set at a 45 angle. This mirror bounces the light...

Personal Photography Systems

Whether you started with an entry-level camera such as the Digital Rebel XTi, shown in 1-4, or went with a professional dSLR, from a photographer's point of view, a photography system includes the camera gear that you currently own. And in a larger sense, a digital photography system also includes the components of your studio and digital darkroom, such as computers, standalone hard drives for storage, printers, and image- A digital camera body Regardless of how much or how little your photography system comprises, the most important aspect of any photography system is having the gear that allows you to capture the range of images that you enjoy or need to photograph.

The art of sharpening

All digital photos require some sharpening. Especially since the AA filters (Anti-Aliasing-filters) in most digital SLRs blur the image a bit to decrease color aliasing (see description at page 1-9). Sharpening is one of the most difficult and subjective topics in digital photography but good tools are available and continue to improve.

Color and Picture Styles

Never has the ability to get accurate color been as accessible as it is with digital photography. Color options begin in the camera by selecting a color space that matches your workflow. In addition, Canon offers Picture Styles that determine the default tonal curve, sharpness, color rendering, and saturation of images. A variety of Picture Styles that replicate traditional film looks or render color in different ways can be applied in the camera for JPEG capture, and either in the camera or after capture for RAW capture.

Practice Be Patient and Have

To wrap up this preamble, I want to stress that if you initially think that digital photography is too confusing or too technical for you, you're in very good company. Everyone finds this stuff a little mind-boggling at first. So take it slowly, experimenting with just one or two new camera settings or techniques at first. Then, each time you go on a photo outing, make it a point to add one or two more shooting skills to your repertoire. I know that it's hard to believe when you're just starting out, but it really won't be long before everything starts to come together. With some time, patience, and practice, you'll soon wield your camera like a pro, dialing in the necessary settings to capture your creative vision almost instinctively. So without further ado, I invite you to grab your camera, a cup of whatever it is you prefer to sip while you read, and start exploring the rest of this book. Your Rebel T1i 500D is the perfect partner for your photographic journey, and I thank you for...

Reviewing Your Photos

MyB Without question, my favorite thing about digital photography is being But simply seeing your pictures is just the start of the things you can do when you switch your camera to playback mode. You also can review many of the camera settings you used to take the picture, display graphics that alert you to serious exposure problems, delete crummy photos, and add file markers that protect the picture from accidental erasure. This chapter tells you how to use all these playback features and more. hh

Colour temperature and film

Colour temperature issues are one area in which digital photography has a significant advantage over chemical-based photography. Most good digital cameras let you set the white balance - the assumed white point - of your subject at will. The EOS 1D, D30, D60 and 1Ds cameras all let you use auto white balance settings or preset settings for common lighting situations. This sort of adjustment isn't possible with film-based photography since the colour temperature balance (white balance information) is permanently built into the film emulsion chemistry at time of manufacture and cannot be altered afterwards. All you can really do with film is to put filters in front of the lens to cut out certain wavelengths of light or perform various filtration tricks in the darkroom when printing - or scan the pictures and alter them in a computer.

Sorting Your Shots For The Multiimage Panorama

Set up your camera using the steps listed here. Now, before you take your first good exposure in the series, hold up one finger in front of the camera and take a shot. Now move your hand away and begin taking your overlapping images. When you have taken your last shot, hold two fingers in front of the camera and take another shot. 4. Now change your camera to Manual mode (M), and dial in the aperture and shutter speed that you obtained in the previous step. 6. While carefully panning your camera, shoot your images to cover the entire area of the scene from one end to the other, leaving a 30 percent overlap from one frame to the next. One of the more recent trends in digital photography is the use of high dynamic range (HDR) to capture the full range of tonal values in your final image. Typically, when you photograph a scene that has a wide range of tones from shadows to highlights, you have to make a decision regarding which tonal values you are going to emphasize, and then adjust...

O Fully Automatic Picture Taking

You can easily and confidently take pictures of any subject, with no need to do anything but press the shutter button. The Canon EOS D30 can capture subjects at any of three focusing points, so that anybody can take great pictures easily. When the in-focus indicator ( ) is blinking, the camera will not take pictures. ( 63, 139) To take pictures in an area where flash photography is prohibited or using indoor lighting, the (P) (Program) ( 72) mode setting is recommended.

Quick Start With Program AE

For quick and easy picture-taking, use the Program AE mode. This mode sets both the shutter speed and aperture automatically to suit the subject's brightness. Anyone can easily take pictures in this mode. By using the focusing points in the wide area AF ellipse in the viewfinder, it is easy to compose and capture a variety of subjects. By attaching a dioptric adjustment lens on the viewfinder eyepiece, near-or far-sighted users can look through the viewfinder without eyeglasses. The camera viewfinder is set to -1 diopter, and ten dioptric adjustment lenses are available. When selecting a dioptric adjustment lens, first attach it to your camera and check that it is the proper one before purchasing. See page 138.

Simple Picture Taking

This chapter describes how to use the Mode Dial's Easy Shooting zone < > , < > , < > , < > , < > , < > for simple picture taking. In this zone, anyone can take pictures easily by simply pressing the shutter button. In addition, to help prevent mistakes caused by operating the camera improperly, the < > dial, and the < > , < > , < > , and < > buttons do not operate so there is no need to worry about accidental errors.

Rock Solid Reliability

Improved Body Design and The eos-id Mark III retains and refines the beautiful curved surfaces and superb basic Construction layout of the EOS-1 series. Ease of operation and holding comfort have been improved appreciably, as has ease of operation with accessories. The new camera is designed to be easier to understand and more reassuring. The massive strength of its magnesium alloy body and chassis, combined with complete environmental sealing, means that the 1D Mark III stands with its forebears as an instrument worthy of the photographers who risk their lives daily to take pictures.

Shooting Through Fear

Unless you're a war photographer or you like to shoot in hazardous locations, photography is really not a dangerous endeavor. Nevertheless, people will succumb to all sorts of fear-based behavior when trying to take pictures. The most common one is that they will stick to the ideas that they know work, or that have worked before, rather than trying something new and risking the bad feeling that comes when something doesn't work.

Manipulating Focus and Color

7o many people, the word focus has just one interpretation when applied to a photograph Either the subject is in focus or it's blurry. And it's true, this characteristic of your photographs is an important one. There's not much to appreciate about an image that's so blurry that you can't make out whether you're looking at Peru or Peoria. In addition, this chapter dives into the topic of color, explaining such concepts as white balancing, which compensates for the varying color casts created by different light sources, and color space, which determines the spectrum of colors your camera can capture. Finally, a section near the end of the chapter introduces you to Picture Styles, which enable you to take even greater control over image sharpness and color.

Chapter In the Field with the Rebel XSiD

Photographs Action and sports photography tips Animal and Wildlife Photography Inspiration photographs Animal and wildlife photography tips interior photographs 188 Architectural and interior Taking child photographs 193 Taking macro photographs 198 photographs 203 Nature and landscape photographs 208 Night and low-light Taking portrait photographs 214 Taking still-life photographs 219 Stock Photography 221 Taking stock photographs 223 Stock photography tips 224 Taking travel photographs 228

Overview and Trends

For stock photographers, the 5D Mark II adds another tool to your arsenal by combining the power of still images and video to tell a story all in one camera. Those photographers able to supply standard or high-definition footage of an event or situation stand a higher chance of getting their images seen and their work published. As consolidation takes place across the market, new strategies have to be formed in order to compete for available assignments, and having a working knowledge of the video language through experience with the camera gives you greater storytelling potential. Today, stock agencies look for an innovative conceptual approach with strong appeal across markets. Many of the bestselling images embody traditional concepts, such as family, as well as contemporary topics, including health, the environment, pop culture, technology trends, exclusive locations, celebrities, and weather events. However, trends change frequently, and it pays to look at the latest offerings by...

Chapter Assignments

Most sunset photos don't reflect what the photographer saw because they didn't meter correctly for them. The next time you see a colorful sunset, pull out your camera and take a meter reading from the sky and then one without and see what a difference it makes. Why settle for just one variation of an image when you can bracket to get the best exposure choice Set your camera up for a 1 3-bracket series and then expand it to a one-stop series. Review the results to see if the normal setting was the best, or perhaps maybe one of the bracketed exposures is even better. Share your results with the book's Flickr group Join the group here

Taking Creative Control

Chapters in this part help you unleash the full creative power of your camera by moving into semiautomatic or manual photography modes. Chapter 5, Getting Creative with Exposure and Lighting, covers the all-important topic of exposure, starting with an explanation of three critical exposure controls aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. This chapter also discusses your camera's advanced exposure modes (P, Tv, Av, M, and A-DEP), explains exposure options such as metering mode and exposure compensation, and offers tips for using the built-in flash. Chapter 6, Manipulating Focus and Color, provides help with controlling those aspects of your pictures. Look here for information about your camera's automatic and manual focusing features as well as details about color controls such as white balance and the Picture Style options.

Updating The TiS Firmware

I know that you want to get shooting, but having the proper firmware can impact the way the camera operates. It can fix problems as well as improve operation, so you should probably take care of it sooner rather than later. Updating your camera's firmware is something that the manual completely omits, yet it can change the entire behavior of your camera operating systems and functions. The firmware of your camera is the set of computer operating instructions that controls how your camera functions. Updating this firmware is a great way to not only fix little bugs but also gain access to new functionality. You will need to check out the information on the Canon Firmware update page (www.canon.com eos-d ) to review how a firmware update will impact your camera, but it is always a good idea to be working with the most up-to-date firmware version available.

Limitations of the EOSlDs Mark III

No camera is perfect however, the 1 Ds Mark III comes very close as it is versatile and gets great shots in a variety of situations, especially advertising and editorial type work. Not without its limitations, here are a few things to consider when working with your camera

Before You Can Shoot With The Rebel T i

If you haven't yet set up your camera, you need to do a few things before you can shoot with it. Fortunately, the Tli's manual is very good, and you can learn everything you need to know about setup by reading the following sections of the manual You'll need a Secure Digital (SD) memory card for your camera. The Rebel T1i does not ship with a card, so you'll need to buy one. Any photography store or electronics store should carry them. You can learn how to install and remove the card on pages 31-32 of the T1i manual. A lens must be attached to your camera. If you bought the Rebel T1i kit, then you probably got an 18-55mm lens. If you bought the body-only package, then you should have bought a lens separately. You can learn how to attach and remove a lens on pages 33-34 of the T1i manual. Finally, the camera includes a shoulder strap. The best way to ensure that your camera doesn't get damaged is to attach the shoulder strap and use it The camera will be more secure and easier to carry...

Quick Lock at Whats Ahead

This hook is-organised into four parts., each devoted io a dlfJerenl aspect of using your camera, Although chapters flow in a sequence that's designed to Late yuu iFHim absolute beginner tu experienced user, I've also tried make Chapter I, tJottinji the Lay uF tile LttJid.' oilers s Lour Of the external controls on your Camera, shows you how Lo piavisiati camera DHIkd to access internal options. and wslis you through initial camera setup and cistombadon iteps, CFwpters In this pirL hcJp you unleash the lull cneallvc power nf your camera by moving inLo semiautomatic or jnanual photography modes. Chapter > . ClethnftCreative Willi Expnsure and Lighting cavers the all important topic oF exposure. sLarlinif with an explanation ol three criti-cul exposure controls aperture, sFiutter speed. arid ISO. Thin chapter also discusses your camera's advanced exposure modes (P. TV, Av, H. lik a-DEP), explains exposure option.1 such as nietcnny mod anri ex > o-Hiire compensation. and alters tips...

Getting Free Help and Creative Ideas

Okay, so this last one's a bit of a cheat It isn't actually found on your camera, but it will help you better understand the features that are. I speak of the Canon Web site, which you can access at www.canon.com. If you haven't yet visited the site, I encourage you to do so. In the Support section of the site, you can get free technical support for camera problems and even download an electronic copy of your camera manual, should you happen to misplace the one that shipped in the camera box. Most importantly, check periodically to make sure that your camera is running the latest firmware, which is the geekspeak term for the camera's internal software. (The appendix of this book provides details on installing a firmware update.) Be sure to also check out the Learning Center section of the site. There, you can find loads of tutorials and other great instructional offerings not only about your camera but also about the software that ships with it.

Shooting When The Lights Get

There is no reason to put your camera away when the sun goes down. Your T2i has some great features that let you work with available light as well as the built-in flash. In this chapter, we will explore ways to push your camera's technology to the limit in order to capture great photos in difficult lighting situations. We will also explore the use of flash and how best to utilize your built-in flash features to improve your photography. But let's first look at working with low-level available light.

What Is A Photography System

From a broad point of view, a photography system includes all the components that are offered by the camera manufacturer and third-party companies and that are compatible with your camera. From this perspective, a system includes the camera body, lenses, flash units, battery chargers, extension tubes, interface cables, and so on. In other words, the photography system encompasses the universe of components that are compatible with your camera. Your current system may be as simple as one basic body and several lenses, as shown in 1-1.

Appendix Firmware Facts and Menu

Wrapping up the book, the appendix explains how to find out what version of the Canon firmware, or internal software, is installed in your camera and how to find and download updates. If the information you see on your camera menus and other displays isn't the same as what you see in this book, and you've explored other reasons for the discrepancy, a firmware update may be the issue. This book was written using version 1.1.1 of the firmware, which was the most current at the time of publication. Firmware updates typically don't carry major feature changes they're mostly used to solve technical glitches in existing features but if you do download an update, be sure to read the accompanying description of what it accomplishes so that you can adapt my instructions as necessary. (Again, changes that affect how you actually operate the camera should be minimal, if any.) Lots of information in this book is of a technical nature digital photography is a technical animal, after all. But if I...

Getting Everything In

If your mind's eye calls for a very wide shot, how about one of the three ultra-wide zoom lenses The zoom range of these lenses suits the vast majority of wide-angle shots you will ever take. Or, try a standard zoom lens with a focal length from wide to telephoto to get the most out of your camera.

Exploring External Camera Controls

Scattered across your camera's exterior are a number of buttons, dials, and switches that you use to change picture-taking settings, review and edit your photos, and perform various other operations. In later chapters, I discuss all your camera's functions in detail and provide the exact steps to follow to access those functions. This section provides just a basic road map to the external controls plus a quick introduction to each. You may want to put a sticky note or other bookmark on this page so that you can find it for easier reference later. (The cheat sheet at the front of the book offers a similar guide, albeit with less detail.)

Diffusing and Softening the Light

Direct light can be harsh and glaring, especially if you're using the flash built into your camera, or an auxiliary flash mounted in the hot shoe and pointed directly at your subject. The first thing you should do is stop using direct light (unless you're looking for a stark, contrasty appearance as a creative effect). There are a number of simple things you can do with both continuous and flash illumination.

Quick Look at Whats Ahead

This book is organized into four parts, each devoted to a different aspect of using your camera. Although chapters flow in a sequence that's designed to take you from absolute beginner to experienced user, I've also tried to make each chapter as self-standing as possible so that you can explore the topics that interest you in any order you please.

Getting Creative with Exposure and Lighting

You can take great pictures with your Rebel XTi 400D. But to really exploit your camera's capabilities and, more important, to exploit your creative capabilities you need to explore your camera's five advanced exposure modes, represented on the Mode dial by the letters P, Tv, Av, M, and A-DEP.

Subject and Background in flash photography

This is an important distinction because all portable flash units have a limited range. As noted in the FAQ section, you can't expect a small flash unit on your camera to illuminate the Eiffel Tower or the Grand Canyon or even a large space such as a ballroom. The camera, therefore, handles the subject and background metering differently and independently.

Low Light White Balance

Low-light situations can play havoc with color, both in your eyes and in your camera. Your eyes, of course, see very limited color in low light. As the light dims, the color receptors in your eyes cease working, and your vision shifts over to black and white only. While your vision won't actually look like a black-and-white photo, you will have markedly lower color sensitivity than you would in brighter light. Color reproduction is difficult for your camera in low light because low-light situations are usually lit by an odd assortment of lighting types (for instance, the intentionally colored lights in a stage performance), the combination of which confuses your camera's white balance.

More Exposure Options

In Chapter 4, you learned techniques for getting the right exposure, but I haven't explained all your exposure options just yet. You'll want to know about the kind of exposure settings that are available to you with the Canon EOS 40D. There are options that let you control when the exposure is made, or even how to make an exposure that's out of the ordinary in terms of length (time or bulb exposures). The sections that follow explain your camera's special exposure features, and even discuss a few it does not have (and why it doesn't).

Downloading and Editing Your Images

Taking the picture is only half the work and, in some cases, only half the fun. After you've captured some great images and have them safely stored on your Canon Digital Rebel XTi's memory card, you'll need to transfer them from your camera and Compact Flash card to your computer, where they can be organized, fine-tuned in an image editor, and prepared for web display, printing, or some other final destination.

Q Should I Read The Book Straight Through Or Can I Skip Around From Chapter To Chapter

No, because the first four chapters give you the basic information that you need to know about your camera. These are the building blocks for using the camera. After that, yes, you can move around the book as you see fit because those chapters are written to stand on their own as guides to specific types of photography or shooting situations. So you can bounce from portraits to shooting landscapes and then maybe to a little action photography. It's all about your needs and how you want to address them. Or, you can read it straight through. The choice is up to you.

Q What Can I Expect To Learn From This Book

A Hopefully, you will learn how to take great photographs. My goal, and the reason the book is laid out the way it is, is to guide you through the basics of photography as they relate to different situations and scenarios. By using the features of your T2i and this book, you will learn about aperture, shutter speed, ISO, lens selection, depth of field, and many other photographic concepts. You will also find plenty of large full-page photos that include captions, shooting data, and callouts so you can see how all of the photography fundamentals come together to make great images. All the while, you will be learning how your camera works and how to apply its functions and features to your photography.

Working with Picture Files

Y ou've got a memory card full of pictures, a Now what Now you turn to the first chapter in this part, which explains how to get those pictures out of your camera and onto your computer and. Just as Important, how to safeguard them from future digital destruction. After downloading your files, head for Chapter 9. which offers step-by-step guidance on printing your pictures, sharing them online, and even viewing them on your television.

Locking the flash exposure

On occasion, the information that the camera collects from the preflash can be off-target because of the assumptions the system makes about what area of the frame is likely to contain your subject. To address this problem, your camera has a feature called flash exposure lock, or FE Lock. This tool enables you to set the flash power based only on the center of the frame.

About the Software Shown in This Book

Providing specific instructions for performing photo organizing and editing tasks requires that I feature specific software. In sections that cover file downloading, organizing, printing, and e-mail sharing, I selected Canon EOS Utility along with Canon ZoomBrowser EX (for Windows users) and ImageBrowser (for Mac users). These programs are part of the free software suite that ships with your camera.

Packing Your Gear

If you're traveling, the selection of gear and the importance of portability increases, and for air travel, you have to be more selective in packing your camera bodies, lenses, filters, and accessories. The mix of gear most often changes if you're traveling domestically or internationally. I usually estimate the toll the travel will take on my gear and make a decision as to whether it makes more sense to rent the equipment I need on location or close by. Because most of my shooting is in the United States, I keep a collection of different-sized bags and pack them to suit the assignment with an eye on camera protection and how much I can physically carry. One or two 5D Mark II camera bodies. Ideally, you should have a backup 5D Mark II with you in case anything goes wrong. This is especially important in inclement weather and in locations where the camera is exposed to blowing dust, sand, rain, or heavy moisture all of which can wreak havoc with your cameras. You may, of course, eschew...

Q Is Every Camera Feature Going To Be Covered

A Nope, just the ones I felt you need to know about in order to start taking great photos. Believe it or not, you already own a great resource that covers every feature of your camera the owner's manual. Writing a book that just repeats this information would have been a waste of my time and your money. What I did want to write about was how to harness certain camera features to the benefit of your photography. As you read through the book, you will also see callouts that point you to specific pages in your owner's manual that are related to the topic being discussed. For example, in Chapter 6 I discuss the use of the AE-L button but there is more information available on this feature in the manual. I cover the function that applies to our specific needs but also give you the page numbers in the manual to explore this function even further.

More Full Auto Practice

In this chapter, we've covered a lot of technical and practical details that are essential to understand if you want to be able to use your camera quickly and effectively. Often, quick use of the camera is what makes the difference between capturing a decisive moment and getting a boring shot.

One Big Card Or Lots of Small Ones

Though it's rare, a Secure Digital card can be corrupted. Sometimes static electricity can do it, and sometimes a glitch in your computer or in your camera can mess up a card. While the card probably won't be permanently damaged, its contents can be rendered unusable. So, you might want to consider using more lower-capacity cards so that if one goes bad you won't lose as many images.

Fast Track to Super Snaps

1 Chapter 1, Getting the Lay of the Land, offers a tour of the external controls on your camera, shows you how to navigate camera menus to access internal options, and walks you through initial camera setup and customization steps. 1 Chapter 4, Reviewing Your Photos, explains how to view your pictures on the camera monitor and also how to display various types of picture information along with the image. In addition, this chapter discusses how to delete unwanted images and protect your favorites from accidental erasure.

Lock in autofocus if used in advance

Using these techniques should give you a better chance of capturing any fast-moving subject. But action-shooting strategies also are helpful for shooting candid portraits of kids and pets. Even if they aren't currently running, leaping, or otherwise cavorting, snapping a shot before they do move or change positions is often tough. So if an interaction or scene catches your eye, set your camera into action mode and then just fire off a series of shots as fast as you can.

Automatic Portrait Mode

In Chapter 3, we reviewed all of the automatic modes in the Basic zone. One of them, Portrait mode, is dedicated to shooting portraits. While this is not my preferred camera setting, it is a great jumping-off point for those who are just starting out. The key to using this mode is to understand what is going on with the camera so that when you venture further into portrait photography, you can expand on the settings and get the most from your camera and, more importantly, your subject.

Basic PIC modes and external flash units

Older EOS cameras, such as the 10 10s and Elan 100, have PIC (programmed image control or icon) modes that don't handle external flash units correctly. The PIC modes which use flash when necessary (all but landscape and sports) are designed to use the internal flash and are optimized for its characteristics. Check your manual to see if your camera fits in this category - probably pre 1995 or so.

Digital Photo Professional

While it's rewarding to capture some great images and have them ensconced in your camera, eventually you'll be transferring them to your laptop or PC, whether you're using a Windows or Macintosh machine. You have three options for image transfer direct transfer over a USB cable, automated transfer using a card reader and transfer software such as the EOS Utility or Adobe Photoshop Elements Photo Downloader, or manual transfer using drag and drop from a memory card inserted in a card reader.

Two Classic Flash Techniques

Two of the most frequently used flash techniques are bounce flash and creating a catchlight in the subject's eyes. Bounce flash softens hard flash shadows by diffusing the flash light. Facilitate this by holding the flash in your left hand and the camera in your right. The Speedlite is connected to the camera with the Canon Off-Camera Shoe Cord 2, a small coiled cord that contains all the connections your camera and flash need to communicate with each other.

Which Mode Should You Choose

We've covered a few reasons why you might choose one mode over another, but the simple upshot is that when you need more control of one parameter, then one mode might make dialing in that control a little easier. If you need control of both parameters, or if you are intentionally under- or overexposing in a way that your camera is not predisposed to, then Manual mode will be your best choice. As with most creative endeavors, you can divide your photographic study into two areas craft and artistry. Craft encompasses your technical understanding of photographic process how different parameters affect your image and how you use the controls on your camera to set those parameters. Artistry is the process of using your craft skill to represent a scene, person, or moment as a photographic image ideally an image that evokes something of the truth of your subject that you felt when shooting. In this chapter, we're going to focus on the artistry side of things and explore how you visualize and...

Press the Set button

So here's my advice Until you're really comfortable with all the other controls on your camera, just stick with the default setting, which is Evaluative metering. That mode produces good results in most situations, and, after all, you can see in the monitor whether you disagree with how the camera metered or exposed the image and simply reshoot after adjusting the exposure settings to your liking. This option, in my mind, makes the whole metering mode issue a lot less critical than it is when you shoot with film.

Starting the transfer process

If you want to use the same program for all of your transfers, select the Always Use This Program for This Action check box, as I did in Figure 8-5. The next time you connect your camera or insert a memory card, Windows will automatically launch your program of choice instead of displaying the message box.

Part VThe Part of Tens

The histogram works just like the one that appears on your camera monitor if you view your images in Shooting Information display mode, which I discuss in Chapter 4. To recap, the horizontal axis of the graph represents the possible brightness values in an image, ranging from black on the left side to white on the right. The vertical axis shows you how many pixels fall at a particular brightness value. So if you have a tall spike, you have lots of pixels at that brightness value. To adjust exposure, you just drag the three sliders underneath the histogram, depending on whether you want to shift shadows, midtones, or highlights.

Sharp And In Focus Using Tripods

The second reason is also related to the amount of light that you're gathering with your camera. When taking landscape photos, you will usually want to be working with very small apertures, as they give you lots of depth of field (DOF). This also means that, once again, you will be working with slower-than-normal shutter speeds.

Shooting High Definition Video in Lowlight

High definition reproduces color much more accurately than standard, so it's important that you learn a little about color temperature and how your camera sees color. Remember the principles here are the same as in still photography. You're lighting to create a 3-D world in a 2-D framework.

True Digital Negative

The fact that raw processing takes place in the computer and not in the camera has certain advantages. First, you're in control of it, so you can tailor the processing exactly to your taste. For example, you can choose to recover highlights, render some areas brighter, or change the white balance. Second, your camera is designed to perform as quickly as possible. It can't sit around all day meticulously processing an image, because it needs to be sure it's ready to shoot the next picture when you ask it to. Consequently, the processing employed inside the camera uses slightly less-sophisticated algorithms than what a desktop raw converter will use. This means you'll probably get better color out of your desktop raw converter than you will out of a JPEG file that's been processed by the

What You Dont See in Live View

Although Live View is very handy for the circumstances mentioned earlier, there's one thing to bear in mind when using an LCD screen as a viewfinder. As we've discussed, your eyes can see a much wider range of tones than your camera can capture, and good photography is often about how you choose to represent these different tones. When you look through a normal viewfinder, you can see the whole scene, just as your eye really sees it.

Setting Up the Rebel XSiD

Setting up the Rebel XSi 450D is the first step in getting pictures from the camera that you'll treasure for years to come. Although this chapter offers important pointers on setting up your camera, ultimately the best way to get great pictures from the Rebel XSi 450D is to use the settings and evaluate the images. Unlike paying for film and prints, the pictures that you take with the Rebel XSi 450D are at no additional charge, so to speak. This gives you the freedom to explore different camera settings until you get pictures with a combination of color, saturation, and contrast that creates great prints.

Tv shutter priority mode flash

The 420EZ and 430EZ flash units will operate in A-TTL mode in Tv mode, but the 540EZ works only in TTL mode. Note also that some people have reported that in this mode their type A camera bodies underexpose the background by up to a stop when light levels are low and an E-TTL flash unit is engaged. If this is the case try testing by comparing the aperture setting with M mode, which does not do this. You may need to apply exposure compensation if this effect exists on your camera and is undesirable.

TTL and ETTL and EOS film cameras

However, there are three points of note here. First, Canon continued designing and selling type B bodies for many years after the introduction of the Elan II EOS 50, such as the EOS 3000 and venerable EOS 5 A2, so the date you bought your camera won't tell you if it's a type A or B body. Second, since Canon came up with the whole A B naming convention in 1995, older cameras are obviously not described as being type B in their manuals. And third, type A simply means support for E-TTL, FEL and FP mode - it doesn't mean that the camera necessarily supports other recent flash features such as wireless flash ratios or modelling flash.

Your Second and Third Lens

It's more likely that you'll succumb to the malady known as Lens Lust, which is defined as an incurable disease marked by a significant yen for newer, better, longer, faster, sharper, anything-er optics for your camera. In its worst manifestations, sufferers find themselves with lenses that have overlapping zoom ranges or capabilities, because one or the other offers a slight margin in performance or suitability for specific tasks. When you find yourself already lusting after a new lens before you've really had a chance to put your latest purchase to the test, you'll know the disease has reached the terminal phase.

Using the Camera to Select Images for Transfer

While reviewing images in your camera, you can specify which images you want to transfer to your computer. Of course, you could also just delete the images that you don't want, which would free up more storage on your card. However, if you've shot a bunch of images and need to quickly process and deliver just a few, then marking only those images for transfer will let you quickly get those images to your computer for processing. You can transfer the rest later.

Tips For Shopping For Lenses

However you plan to acquire a particular lens, and particularly if it's an expensive piece of glass, if possible it's a good idea to find a local camera store where you can rent one for the day or weekend and try it out. Some stores will even let you apply some or the entire rental price to a purchase. If you plan to buy the lens from that store, they will most likely let you bring in your camera and memory card and take some test shots.

Highlight Erase and then press the Set button

To erase all pictures on the memory card, just select All instead of Erase in Step 3. After you press Set, you see a confirmation screen asking whether you really want to delete all your pictures. Select OK and press Set to go ahead and dump the photos. (Note, though, that pictures that you have protected, a step discussed in the next section, are left intact.) If you accidentally erase a picture, don't panic you may be able to restore it by using data-restoration software. One memory-card manufacturer, SanDisk, even provides this type of software free on some of its memory cards. You also can buy stand-alone programs such as MediaRecover ( 30, www.mediarecover.com) or Lexar Image Rescue (also 30, www.lexar.com). But in order to have a chance at recovering deleted data, you must not take any more pictures or perform any other operations on your camera while the current memory card is in it. If you do, you may overwrite the erased picture data for good and eliminate the possibility of...

Raw CR The purists choice

I You can't do anything with your pictures until you process them with a Raw converter. You can't share them online, print them, put them in a document nada. So when you shoot Raw, you add to the time you must spend in front of the computer instead of behind the camera lens. Chapter 8 shows you how to process your Raw files using the converter found in the Canon software that was included in your camera box. 1 Raw files are larger than JPEGs. The type of file compression that Raw applies doesn't degrade image quality, but the tradeoff is larger files. In addition, Raw files are always captured at the maximum resolution available on your camera, even if you don't really need all those pixels. For both reasons, Raw files are significantly larger than JPEGs, so they take up more room on your memory card and on your computer's hard drive or other picture-storage device.

Raising The Iso The Simple Solution

Let's begin with the obvious way to keep shooting when the lights get low raising the ISO (Figure 8.1). By now you know how to change the ISO just press the ISO button on the top of the camera and turn the Main dial to adjust. In typical shooting situations, you should keep the ISO in the 100-800 range. This will keep your pictures nice and clean by keeping the digital noise to a minimum. But as the available light gets low, you might find yourself working in the higher ranges of the ISO scale, which could lead to more noise in your image.

All Your Eggs in One Basket

If none of these options are available to you, consider interleaving your shots. Say you don't shoot weddings, but you do go on vacation from time to time. Take 50 or so pictures on one card, or whatever number of images might fill about 25 percent of its capacity. Then, replace it with a different card and shoot about 25 percent of that card's available space. Repeat these steps with diligence (you'd have to be determined to go through this inconvenience), and, if you use four or more memory cards you'll find your pictures from each location scattered among the different Compact Flash cards. If you lose or damage one, you'll still have some pictures from all the various stops on your trip on the other cards. That's more work than I like to do (I usually tote around a portable hard disk and copy the files to the drive as I go), but it's an option.

Reduce chromatic aberration CA and purple fringing

Chromatic aberration (CA for short) is actually a fault that nearly all 7-13 lenses show. Whether it is also shows in the final image is up to the quality of the lenses used. Most of the time chromatic aberrations show as purple green fringing and it gets stronger the more you get into the corners. The reason is that the lenses have a different focal plane for the different colors. Especially consumer class digital cameras show more CA than high end digital cameras with top lenses.

White Balance Settings

The human eye automatically adapts to changes in light so that white subjects appear white even under different lighting conditions. Cameras that use film have to adjust for these differences by using color-correcting filters or switching to different film types. Digital cameras rely on software to correct the color temperature by determining white as the basis for the colors in the subject, then correcting the other colors to achieve a natural color range. (EH) mode automatically selects the white balance according to the light source where you are shooting. If this does not produce pictures with satisfactory coloring, you can select a mode other than (EUD).

Learning The Basics Of Lenses

For many of you, your experience with lenses may be limited to film or digital cameras with fixed lenses, so the following sections explore some of the characteristics of photographic lenses. This will enable you to better understand how lenses work and which ones might be right for your style of photography.

The problem with camera profiles

In chapter one and two, we emphasized the importance of ICC profiles. What was said is true for monitors, scanners and printers. But, profiling is useful for digital cameras as well. Cameras, however, present a problem a scanner, the light source remains the same (you only differentiate between reflective and transparencies). With printers, D50 (daylight at 5,000 Kelvin) is the standard light source for evaluating and judging prints. Cameras however, encounter varying light conditions, e.g. night shots, morning light, sunny or cloudy). For this reason, profiling your cameras is practical only if you shoot in only one or just a few different lighting conditions, such as may be the case when shooting in a studio. Shoot a camera target using the same lighting conditions you 11-2 propose to use with photographs. Use those camera settings

Getting the Most from This Book

Throughout the book, the goal is to make your workflow more efficient by setting up the camera for routine shooting so that you get the highest image quality and the color settings that fit best within your workflow. The first half of the book is devoted to not only setting the camera controls, but also to the effect of using different controls and settings during shooting. It is essential to know the camera controls well, and to set up functions so that they best suit your routine shooting preferences. The XSi 450D is customizable giving you ample opportunity to setup the camera so that it works well for you. Further, Canon provided a full complement of features that give you control over exposure, color, and drive modes. Knowing the extent of these features will go a long way toward making your photography efficient and successful. While you may or may not be drawn to the Picture Styles, offered on Canon EOS digital cameras, Chapter 3 explains why you need to carefully evaluate and...

Isolate the Interesting Part

Super-compact and light, this lens is ideal for digital SLRs-used on the Digital Rebel, it's equivalent to an approx. 90-320mm lens. The 13-element design's new optical coatings are optimized for digital cameras, it's a lightweight telephoto that's perfect for any EOS SLR. It focuses down to under 4 feet (1.2m), and its Micro USM-powered AF is faster than ever, due to new electronics within the lens.

Learning about RAW Capture

Note IWith digital cameras, dynamic range depends on the sensor. The brightest f-stop is a function of the brightest highlight in the scene that the sensor can capture, or the point at which the sensor element is saturated with photons. The darkest tone is determined by the point at which the noise in the system is greater than the comparatively weak signal generated by the photons hitting the sensor element.

Settings And Features To Make Great Portraits

Taking pictures of people is one of the great joys of photography. You will experience a great sense of accomplishment when you capture the spirit and personality of someone in a photograph. At the same time, you have a great responsibility because the person in front of the camera is depending on you to make them look good. You can't always change how someone looks, but you can control the way you photograph that individual. In this chapter, we will explore some camera features and techniques that can help you create great portraits.

Choosing A Focus Mode

Selecting the proper focus mode depends largely on what type of subject you are photographing. One Shot is typically best for stationary subjects. It allows you to determine exactly where you want your focus to be and then recompose your image while holding the focus in place. If you are taking pictures of an active subject that is moving quickly, trying to set a focus point with One Shot can be difficult, if not impossible. This is when you will want to rely on the AI modes to quickly assess the subject distance and set your lens focus.

Inspiration and Creative Resources

The bulk of sports, concert, and event photography is rich with action and exciting locations that can yield stunning visual imagery. Exciting people doing exciting things, whether they be politicians, performers, or athletes, are always excellent subjects for one-of-a-kind compelling photographs. To keep current with the latest styles and trends in these areas of photography, the Internet offers a wide selection of resources to explore, as does the magazine rack at your favorite grocery or convenience store. All these resources contribute to a well-rounded photographer's visual awareness and storytelling expertise.

Get Shooting With The Automatic Camera Modes

The Canon T2i is an amazing camera that has some incredible features. In fact, with all of the technology built into it, it can be pretty intimidating for the person new to dSLR photography. For that reason, the good folks at Canon have made it a little easier for you to get some great-looking photographs without having to do a lot of thinking. Enter the Basic zone. 99S The camera modes that comprise the Basic zone side of the Mode dial are Mi simple, icon-labeled modes that are set up to use specific features of the

Some strategic reasoning

Like many pads lead to Rome, there are many ways to shape your digital workflow. The most appropriate way for you depends on the kind of photographs you shoot, the purpose you intend for your images, on your equipment and on personal preferences, as well. To setup a workflow that suites your work best, you might give different workflow variations a trial, then finally settle on a workflow, which can be adapted in special cases

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100 Photography Tips

To begin with your career in photography at the right path, you need to gather more information about it first. Gathering information would provide you guidance on the right steps that you need to take. Researching can be done through the internet, talking to professional photographers, as well as reading some books about the subject. Get all the tips from the pros within this photography ebook.

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