Trick Photography and Special Effects

Trick Photography And Special Effects

Have you ever looked at professional trick photos and wondered why you are not able to get the same fantastic results from your photography? Well believe it or not, there are just a few easy tricks that you have to master in order to start taking photographs that will show the SAME level of amazing quality that professional photographers show! You actually do not need professional, expensive equipment to get that same amazing feel that great trick photos do; all that it takes is Knowledge. You will also learn how to improve your regular photography as well; your overall photographic knowledge will increase as a result of what you've learned! Normally it takes years to move from amateur to professional photographer, but with the skills that you will learn, you don't have to stay stuck in the amateur stage; you can move the professional stage very quickly! More here...

Trick Photography And Special Effects Summary

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Tried to take a flash photo and the camera wanted a really slow shutter speed

In Av, night and Tv (shutter speed priority) modes the camera meters for ambient (existing) light and fills in the foreground subject using the flash. It does not assume that the primary light source is the flash, and therefore the shutter speed it sets is the same as it would set if you weren't using flash at all. In low light this results in slow shutter photography. If the shutter speed is very long you will, therefore, need a tripod to avoid motion blur during the exposure. Alternatively you can switch to full auto (green rectangle) or Program (P) mode, which automatically expose for the flash-illuminated subject and not the background. These modes try to ensure that the shutter speed is high enough to let you handhold the camera without a tripod. The drawback of P and basic modes is that photos taken in dimly lit areas usually end up with black or poorly lit backgrounds.

Shutter Speed Aperture Balance

So, you can control how sharp or blurry a subject is by choosing a slower or faster shutter speed, and you can control how deep the focus is by choosing a larger or smaller aperture. However, each of these choices will also render your scene brighter or darker. For example, if you decide you want to use a very fast shutter speed to stop a fast-moving object, then your scene might end up underexposed. The faster speed will allow less light to hit the image sensor, and your final image might end up dark. You can compensate for a faster shutter speed, though, by using a wider aperture. A wider aperture will allow more light to pass through the lens and will restore a good level of brightness to your scene. Of course, a wider aperture might mean less depth of field. So, if you want to stop motion and have a deep depth of field and a scene that is properly bright, you might have a problem. Balancing all of these factors is one of the tricky things about photography. To better understand...

Combining telephoto lenses and high shutter speeds for breathtaking sports shots

There's no question about the inherent drama of sports - the dynamism of the players, their concentrated expressions, and the atmosphere of heated struggle. A telephoto zoom lens like the FD 100-300mm f 5.6, combined with a shutter speed of 1 500 or 1 1000 sec., allows you to photograph these turbulent movements and emotions. The telephoto zoom singles out the action, while the high shutter speeds, along with high sensitivity film, freeze the instant of drama. A motor drive or power winder ensures that you never miss the crucial shot, and are always ready for the unexpected. One final tip make sure your subjects fill the frame. Then you can be sure your sports shots always convey the action they represent.

Exposure Compensation with the Button

Exposure compensation can also be set with the < +X-> button and < dial. Press the < V-> button and turn the dial within (06) to set the desired exposure compensation amount. This is useful when you want to apply the same exposure compensation to the entire roll of film. To prevent the < 0> dial from turning inadvertently and changing the exposure compensation amount, set the < > switch to < O > .

Adjusting the Exposure Compensation

Adjust the exposure compensation setting to avoid making the subject too dark when it is backiit or shot against a bright background or to avoid making lights appear too bright in night shots. To Reset the Exposure Compensation Exposure compensation is not available In the and My Colors modes. The exposure compensation can also be set or reset In a movie mode (p. 84)

Flash Exposure Compensation

Flash Exposure Compensation is much like Auto Exposure Compensation in that you can set compensation for exposure up to plus minus two stops in 1 3-stop increments. A positive compensation increases the flash output and a negative compensation decreases the flash output. Flash Exposure Compensation can help reduce shadows in the background and balance unevenly lit scenes. If you use an accessory Speedlite, you can set Flash Exposure Compensation either on the camera or on the Speedlite. However, the compensation that you set on the Speedlite overrides any compensation that you set on the 40D's Setup 2 (yellow) camera Flash Exposure Compensation can be combined with Exposure Compensation. If you're shooting a scene where one part of the scene is brightly lit and another part of the scene is much darker for example an interior room with a view to the outdoors then you can set Exposure Compensation to -1 and set the Flash Exposure Compensation to -1 to make the transition between the two...

Flash exposure compensation FEC

FEC is adjustable in half or one-third stop intervals, depending on the camera and flash. You can apply both positive (more light from the flash) or negative (less) compensation, usually by up to three stops. Remember that, on cameras which have it, FEC is completely independent from regular exposure compensation on your camera. (cameras which lack FEC simply adjust flash and ambient compensation simultaneously) It's quite possible to, for instance, apply plus 1 stop FEC and dial in minus two stops exposure compensation at the same time. Just like regular light metering, one stop represents a doubling or halving of light output. Altering FEC means altering power output, not distance. (see the section on guide numbers for more information)

Adjusting flash power with flash exposure compensation

Camera Symbol Exposure Flash

You can adjust the flash output by using a feature called flash exposure compensation. This feature works similarly to exposure compensation, discussed earlier in this chapter. But flash exposure compensation affects the output level of the flash unit, whereas exposure compensation affects the brightness of the background in your flash photos. As with exposure compensation, the flash exposure compensation settings are stated in terms of EV (exposure value) numbers. A Figure 5-26 When normal flash output is too strong, dial in a lower flash exposure compensation setting. Figure 5-26 When normal flash output is too strong, dial in a lower flash exposure compensation setting. As for boosting the flash output, well, you may find it necessary on some occasions, but don't expect the built-in flash to work miracles even at a flash exposure compensation of +2.0. Any built-in flash has a limited range, and you simply can't expect the flash light to reach faraway objects. In other words, don't...

Overriding Autoexposure Results with Exposure Compensation

Canon Exposure Dial

When you set your camera to the P, Tv, Av, or A-DEP exposure modes, you can enjoy the benefits of autoexposure support but still retain some control over the final, overall exposure. If you think that the image the camera produced is too dark or too light, you can use a feature known as exposure compensation, which is sometimes also called EV compensation. (The EV stands for exposure value.) Exposure compensation settings are stated in terms of EV values, as in +2.0 EV. Possible values range from +2.0 EV to -2.0 EV. Each full number on the EV scale represents an exposure shift of one full stop. In plain English, that means that if you change the exposure compensation setting from EV 0.0 to EV -1.0, the camera adjusts either the aperture or shutter speed to allow half as much light into the camera as you would get at the current setting. If you instead raise the value to EV +1.0, the settings are adjusted to double the light. By default, the exposure is adjusted in 1 3 stop increments....

Using FE Lock and Flash Exposure Compensation

You can also manually add or subtract exposure to the flash exposure calculated by the 40D. Just press the Metering Mode Flash Exposure Compensation button and spin the Main Dial to the left to dial in less exposure, or to the right to add exposure. The exposure index scale on the top panel LCD and in the viewfinder will indicate the change you've made. As with non-flash exposure compensation, the adjustment you make remains in effect for the pictures that follow, and even when you've turned the camera off, remember to cancel the flash exposure compensation adjustment by reversing the steps used to set it when you're done using it.

Release the Exposure Compensation button after you select the value you want to use

In Av (aperture-priority) mode, the camera adjusts the shutter speed but leaves your selected f-stop in force. Be sure to check the resulting shutter speed to make sure that it isn't so slow that camera shake or blur from moving objects is problematic. In Tv (shutter-priority) mode, the opposite occurs The camera opens or stops down the aperture, leaving your selected shutter speed alone. In P (programmed auto) and A-DEP mode, the camera decides whether to adjust aperture, shutter speed, or both to accommodate the exposure compensation setting. However, the camera can adjust the aperture only so much, according to the aperture range of your lens. And the range of shutter speeds, too, is limited by the camera itself. So if you reach the ends of those ranges, you either have to compromise on shutter speed or aperture or adjust ISO. One final, and critical point about exposure compensation When you power off the camera, it doesn't return you to a neutral setting (EV 0.0). The setting...

AO Setting Exposure Compensation

Set exposure compensation if the exposure (without flash) does not come out as desired. This feature can be used in Creative Zone modes (except < M > ). Although you can set the exposure compensation up to 5 stops in 1 3-stop increments, the exposure compensation indicator in the viewfinder can only display the setting up to 2 stops. If you want to set the exposure compensation beyond 2 stops, you should follow the instructions for 2 Exp. comp. AEB on page 89. After taking the picture, hold down the < aO> button and turn the < 6> dial to reset the exposure compensation to zero. Setting Exposure Compensation*

Adjusting aperture and shutter speed

HBEff You can adjust aperture and shutter speed only in P, Tv, Av, and M exposure modes. In A-DEP mode, the camera forces you to use its selected exposure settings. (You can, however, tweak the exposure by using the exposure-compensation feature discussed in the next section.) The current aperture and shutter speed appear in the viewfinder and Shooting Settings display. In Live View mode, the settings appear under the image preview on the monitor. In manual exposure mode, the exposure meter also lets you know whether the current settings will expose the image properly. In the other advanced exposure modes Tv, Av, P, and A-DEP the camera indicates an exposure problem not with the meter, but by flashing either the shutter speed or f-stop value. (See the section Monitoring Exposure Settings, earlier in this chapter, for details.) Auto Noise reduction is applied when you use a shutter speed of 1 second or longer,

Handheld Shooting and Shutter Speed

No matter which mechanism you use, once you start fiddling with shutter speed, you have to be very careful about the shutter speed you choose. Pick one too low, and you'll run the risk of getting blurry images due to camera shake. The problem is simply that it's impossible to hold a camera perfectly still. As animals, we don't So, what's the slowest shutter speed that you can use when shooting handheld That depends on your lens and on the focal length you're shooting at. The rule of thumb is that the slowest shutter speed you should use is 1 focal length. So, if you're shooting with a 100mm lens, you shouldn't use a shutter speed that's less than 1 100th of a second. But, as you learned in Chapter 4, the effective focal length of any lens that you put on the Rebel T1i is the lens focal length multiplied by 1.6. So, if you set your zoom lens to 100mm, the slowest shutter speed you should use is actually 1 160th of a second, or 100 x 1.6. So, when using the Program Shift feature (or any...

Exposure compensation

Another way to modify the standard exposure on the 5D Mark II is by using exposure compensation, which enables you to purposely and continuously modify the standard exposure by a specific amount up to +2 f-stops in 1 3-stop or 1 2-stop increments via C.Fn I-01. A common use is to override the camera's suggested ideal exposure in scenes that have large areas of white or black. In these types of scenes, the camera's onboard meter averages light or dark scenes to 18 gray to render large expanses of whites as gray and large expanses of black as gray. You can use exposure compensation to override the meter. For example, snow scenes usually require between +1 to +2 stops of compensation to render snow as white instead of dull gray. A scene with predominately dark tones might require -1 to -2 stops of compensation to get true dark renderings. I've also used exposure compensation in conjunction with a handheld incident meter to set the 5D Mark II's standard exposure to the incident meter...

Setting ISO fstop and Shutter Speed

If you want to control ISO, aperture (f-stop), or shutter speed, you must set the camera to one of the five advanced exposure modes. Formally called Creative Zone modes in Canon nomenclature, these modes include programmed autoexposure (P), shutter-priority autoexposure (Tv), aperture-priority autoexposure (Av), manual exposure (M), and auto depth of field (A-DEP). I explain each of these modes at the start of the chapter. The next sections provide specifics (finally, you say) on how to adjust ISO, aperture, and shutter speed in all five modes.

Using Exposure Compensation to Over or Underexpose

Now that you've seen some of the occasions when you might want to over- or underexpose, we'll look at one of the ways that you can tell the camera to make such an exposure adjustment. There are many ways of controlling exposure on the T1i, but the easiest method is to use exposure compensation. These days, almost all cameras have an Exposure Compensation control, which simply lets you make a relative exposure change. That is, you can tell the camera, I don't care how you metered the scene I just want you to go up from there by one stop. Try using exposure compensation now 3. After the camera beeps, the viewfinder and status LCD will show you the shutter speed and aperture settings that it has calculated. 6. Using your thumb, press the Exposure Compensation button on the back of the camera. 7. Rotate the Main dial until the Exposure Compensation display in the viewfinder indicates a one-stop overexposure. (If you haven't changed the camera's defaults, then this will be three clicks on...

Setting Exposure Compensation

Exposure compensation is used to alter the standard exposure setting set by the camera. You can make the image look lighter (increased exposure) or darker (decreased exposure). You can set the exposure compensation up to 2 stops in 1 3-stop increments. Set the exposure compensation amount. Turn the < > dial either while pressing the shutter button halfway or within (< 2> 4) after pressing the shutter button halfway. To cancel the exposure compensation, set the exposure compensation amount back to < > . The exposure compensation amount will remain in effect even after the < * > switch is set to < OFF> . If the standard exposure setting is 1 125 sec. and f 8.0, setting the exposure compensation amount to plus or minus one stop will be the same as setting the shutter speed or aperture as follows The exposure compensation amount will remain in effect even after the < * > switch is set to < OFF> . If the standard exposure setting is 1 125 sec. and f 8.0, setting...

Controlling Color Tone with Exposure Compensation

In general, when shooting in bright daylight, you might find that leaving your exposure compensation set to -1 3 gives you better saturation and deeper color. However, be aware that you'll run the risk of losing detail in the very darkest parts of your image, and lighter tones may render a little gray.

Panning With A Slow Shutter Speed

When you shoot with a slow shutter speed to try to introduce blur into your shot, you have two choices you can hold the camera still, and let the object move through your scene to create a blurred subject, or you can pan the camera to follow your subject and create a blurred background. When shooting with a slow shutter speed, you can pan the camera to follow a moving subject, rendering the background a blur. Press the shutter button halfway to meter your scene then spin the Main dial to dial in a slower shutter speed. Then, press the button all the way to open the shutter, and pan to follow your subject as it passes through your scene. with a really fast-moving object, you don't need a super-long shutter speed. on a bright day, even a 50th of a second might be enough. try different shutter speeds and pans until you get the amount of background blur that you like. As I mentioned in the previous chapter, the camera's built-in meter aims for a shutter speed that is appropriate for...

Introducing the Exposure Trio Aperture Shutter Speed and ISO

Iso Aperture Shutter Speed

Figure 5-2 The aperture size and shutter speed determine how much light strikes the image sensor. Figure 5-2 The aperture size and shutter speed determine how much light strikes the image sensor. Shutter speed (controls duration of light) Set behind the aperture, the shutter works something like, er, the shutters on a window. When you aren't taking pictures, the camera's shutter stays closed, preventing light from striking the image sensor. When you press the shutter button, the shutter opens briefly to allow light that passes through the aperture to hit the image sensor. The length of time that the shutter is open is called the shutter speed and is measured in seconds 1 60 second, 1 250 second, 2 seconds, and so on. Shutter speeds on the Rebel XS 1000D range from 30 seconds to 1 4000 second when you shoot without flash. Should you want a shutter speed longer than 30 seconds, manual (M) exposure mode also provides a feature called bulb exposure. At this setting, the shutter stays open...

Tv Shutter Speed Priority AE

Tv (Time value), allows you to choose the shutter speed best suited to your creative needs while the camera chooses the correct reciprocal f-stop. This mode is a valuable tool when photographing moving objects because you can easily change the amount of motion blur in your final image, from none at all to as much as you want IG 5.24).

Av aperture priority mode flash

Av mode lets you set the depth of field by specifying the lens aperture. The camera then chooses a shutter speed ranging from 30 seconds to the camera's X-sync speed, in order to expose the background correctly. If that means the shutter speed is some really low value so that you need to use a tripod to avoid camera-shake blur, so be it. In dark conditions, therefore, Av mode works in slow sync mode. There is one exception to this. A number of EOS cameras have a custom function you can set to ensure that the shutter speed in Av mode when using flash is locked to the X-sync speed. The EOS 10 10s and Elan II EOS 50, for example, have such a custom function, which lets your camera behave more like P mode when in Av mode. However this custom function will only lock the camera to X-sync in Av mode and will not choose a shutter speed from 1 60 sec to X-sync, the way P mode does. As always, the camera will prevent you from exceeding its built in X-sync speed unless FP mode is available to...

M Manually Setting the Shutter Speed and ApertureU

You can manually set the shutter speed and aperture to shoot images. Configure the shutter speed and aperture setting. 1. Press the O button to select the shutter speed or aperture value. 2. Use the control dial to change the shutter speed or aperture value. Correct Exposure Level Exposure Level Indicator Exposure compensation value (green line) Correct Exposure Level Exposure Level Indicator Exposure compensation value (green line) When you press the -Jf button, the shutter speed or aperture value will automatically shift to obtain the correct exposure (except when the (MF icon and p icon are selected). When the shutter speed is selected, the aperture value will change. When the aperture is selected, the shutter speed will change. In addition, if you press the button after you adjusted the exposure compensation (p. 137), the exposure will shift to the adjusted value. The exposure compensation value appears as a green line on the exposure level indicator. If the zoom is adjusted after...

Shutter Speed and Aperture Value Readouts

Shutter speed readout The shutter speed is normally displayed in 1 2-stop increments. Numbers from HOOD to T denote the denominator of the shutter speed fraction for example, l 5 is 1 125 seconds. In addition, D3 is 0.3 seconds, and IS is 15 seconds. Shutter speed Shutter speed C.Fn-06-1, the shutter speed and aperture value can be set in 1 3-stop increments. Hp.122)

Tv Setting the Shutter Speed

When you set the shutter speed, the camera automatically selects an aperture value to match the brightness of the subject. Faster shutter speeds allow you to catch an instantaneous image of a moving subject, while slower speeds create a flowing effect and allow you to shoot without a flash in dark areas. If the aperture value is shown in red, the image is underexposed (insufficient light) or overexposed (too much light). Use the or 4 button to adjust the shutter speed until the aperture value shows in white. The nature of CCD image sensors is such that noise in the recorded image increases at slow shutter speeds. This camera, however, applies special processing to images shot at shutter speeds slower than 1.3 seconds to eliminate the noise, thereby producing high-quality images. (However, a certain amount of processing time may be required before the next image can be shot.) The aperture value and shutter speed change according to the zoom state as follows. Shutter Speed (seconds) The...

Taming Bright Skies With Exposure Compensation

The one way to tell if you have blown out your highlights is to check the Highlight Alert, or blinkies, feature on your camera (see the How I Shoot section in Chapter 4). When you take a shot where the highlights are exposed beyond the point of having any detail, that area will blink in your LCD display. It is up to you to determine if that particular area is important enough to regain detail by altering your exposure. If the answer is yes, then the easiest way to go about it is to use some exposure compensation.

M Manually Setting the Shutter Speed and Aperture

You can manually set the shutter speed and aperture to shoot The LCD monitor's brightness matches the selected shutter speed and aperture value. When you select a fast shutter speed or shoot a subject in a dark place, the image will always be bright if the flash is set to HE3 (Flash on, with red-eye reduction) or H (Flash on). For the correlation between aperture value and shutter speed, see page 42. Exposure compensation AF frame Shutter speed Exposure compensation AF frame Aperture value Exposure compensation AF frame Shutter speed Aperture value AF frame

Exposure Compensation value

This option, also detailed in Chapter 5, enables you to produce a brighter or darker image than the camera's autoexposure meter thinks appropriate. If you applied exposure compensation when you take a picture, the compensation amount appears to the right of the f-stop during playback. Otherwise, this area of the display is empty. Exposure Compensation Shutter Speed Exposure Compensation Shutter Speed Protect Using the Protect feature, described later in this chapter, you can lock an image to prevent it from being erased when you use the camera's Erase function. (Formatting the memory card does delete the picture, however, so use caution.) If you protect the photo, a little key icon appears next to the Exposure Compensation value.

Exposure Compensation with the Dial

Turn the < 0> dial to set the desired exposure compensation amount. The exposure compensation amount is indicated by the exposure level indicator in the viewfinder (where the ti. icon also lights) and the exposure compensation indicator on the LCD panel. To cancel exposure compensation, set the amount to the standard exposure index (zero). Custom Function CF-6 enables the exposure compensation amount to be set in half-stop increments. See page 112. The exposure compensation amount's 1 3-stop or half-stop (enabled with Custom Function CF-6) increments are indicated in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel as shown below. The exposure compensation amount remains effective even after the < > switch is set to < H > . -1 1 3 exposure compensation -1 1 2 exposure compensation -1 1 3 exposure compensation

Rotate the Main dial to select the shutter speed

Refer to Figure 7-7 to locate shutter speed on the Camera Settings display. After you select the shutter speed, the camera selects an aperture (f-stop) to match. What shutter speed you need depends on the speed at which your subject is moving, so some experimentation is needed. But generally speaking, 1 500 second should be plenty for all but the fastest subjects speeding hockey players like my subject, race cars, boats, and so on. For slower subjects, you can even go as low as 1 250 or 1 125 second. If the aperture value blinks Shutter speed AF mode Drive mode after you set the shutter speed, the camera can't select an f-stop that will properly expose the photo at that shutter speed. See Chapter 5 for more details about how the camera notifies you of potential exposure problems. In dim lighting, you may not be able to get a good exposure at your chosen shutter speed without taking this step. Raising the ISO does increase the possibility of noise, but a noisy shot is better than a...

Time The role of shutter speed

Shutter speed controls how long the shutter stays open to let light from the lens strike the image sensor. The longer the shutter, or curtain, stays open, the more light reaches the sensor (at the aperture and ISO that you've set). When you increase or decrease the shutter speed by one full setting, it doubles or halves the exposure. For example, twice as much light reaches the image sensor at 1 30 second as at 1 60 second. In daily shooting, shutter speed is also related to The ability to handhold the camera and get sharp images, particularly in low light. The general rule for handholding a non-Image Stabilized lens is the reciprocal of the focal length. For example, if you're shooting at 200mm, then the slowest shutter speed at which you can handhold the lens and get a sharp image is 1 200 second. 6.7 A fast shutter speed freezes subject motion while a slow shutter speed shows subject motion. Exposure ISO 400, f 8, 1 1600 second. You can control the shutter speed in Shutter-priority...

O Exposure Compensation

Exposure compensation is used to alter the standard exposure set by the camera. You can make the image look brighter (increased exposure) or darker (decreased exposure). You can set the exposure compensation up to 3 stops in 1 3-stop increments. 2 Set the exposure compensation amount. When exposure compensation has been set, the < y> icon will be displayed in the viewfinder. To cancel exposure compensation, set the exposure level indicator to the standard exposure index (< a> or < C> ). The exposure compensation amount will remain in effect even after you set the power switch to < OFF> . Take care not to turn the < > dial and change the exposure compensation inadvertently. To prevent this, set the power switch to

How Shutter Speed Choice Affects Your Image

This next bit should be pretty intuitive. As you choose a faster shutter speed, you will have more ability to freeze motion in a scene. That is, when the shutter is open for a very short time, a moving subject will be frozen. When the shutter is open for a longer time, a moving subject will be blurry and smeared. With a slower shutter speed, you can blur your subject to create a more dynamic image. With a slower shutter speed, you can blur your subject to create a more dynamic image. In this image, the slower shutter speed lets us see the movement of the rides. In this image, the slower shutter speed lets us see the movement of the rides. If we shoot this scene with a fast shutter speed so that it is completely frozen, then we no longer see this as a moving Ferris wheel. In fact, it looks stopped. Blurred motion is often a way to introduce a dynamic feel to your images. When shooting a dynamic scene, you'll want to think about what best conveys the sense of dynamism that you feel...

Exposure Compensation and Program Shift

In Chapter 6 you learned about Program Shift, which lets you automatically switch between reciprocal exposure settings after the camera has metered. Program Shift makes it easy to quickly switch to a different shutter speed or aperture while maintaining a good exposure. However, because Program Shift always changes to a reciprocal exposure, it never gives you an over- or underexposure, but you can dial in an exposure compensation for that, and you can easily use these two features in concert. For example, you might meter and then use Program Shift to switch to a faster shutter speed, but maybe you're shooting something white and want a little bit of overexposure. If you dial in +1 3 of a stop, you'll still get both your faster shutter speed and overexposure. In many cases, these two controls will provide all the manual power you need, and you can drive them both while looking through the viewfinder thanks to the T1i's powerful interface.

Nonbracketing Is Exposure Compensation

When the three bracket indicators aren't separated, using the left right cross keys simply, in effect, adds or subtracts exposure compensation. You'll be shooting a bracketed set of one picture, with the zero point placed at the portion of the scale you indicated. Until you rotate the Main Dial to separate the three bracket indicators by at least one indicator, this screen just supplies EV adjustment. Also keep in mind that the increments shown will be either 1 3 stop or 1 2 stop, depending on how you've set C.Fn I-01.

F Flash Exposure Compensation

You can adjust the flash output as easily as normal exposure compensation. Flash exposure compensation can be set up to 3 stops in 1 3-stop increments. (If the camera's exposure compensation is set in 1 2-stop increments, flash exposure compensation is set in 1 2-stop increments.) To cancel the flash exposure compensation, set the amount to +0. The flash exposure compensation amount will be set. S If flash exposure compensation has been set with both the Speedlite and camera, the Speedlite's flash exposure compensation amount will override the camera's.

Tv Setting the Shutter Speedi

When you set the shutter speed, the camera automatically selects an aperture value to match the brightness. Faster shutter speeds allow you to catch an instantaneous image of a moving subject, while slower speeds create a flowing effect and allow you to shoot without a flash in dark areas. Configure the shutter speed. 1. Use the control dial to change the shutter speed. When using the control dial, the Tv bar will be displayed and the shutter speed can be changed. Shutter speed If the aperture value is shown in red, the image is underexposed (insufficient light) or overexposed (too much light). Use the control dial to adjust the shutter speed until the aperture value shows in white (you can also use the Safety Shift (p. 97)). The nature of CCDs is such that noise in the recorded image increases at slow shutter speeds. This camera, however, applies special processing to images shot at shutter speeds slower than 1.3 seconds to eliminate the noise, thereby producing high-quality images....

Shutter Speed

Canon Camera Shutter Speed

The amount of time a shutter remains open to allow light to strike the camera's sensor is the camera's shutter speed. A shorter time duration (aka faster) means more action can be stopped, or frozen. Conversely, slower shutter speeds (a.k.a. longer) allows action to blur. Under many circumstances, longer shutter speeds will necessitate smaller apertures, increasing depth of field (FIGS 1.6 and 1.7). When a shutter speed actuation is made slower (by the shutter's equivalent of a full stop), the amount of time that light plays on the chip is doubled. Changing the shutter speed in such a manner without correspondingly adjusting the aperture will result in an image overexposed by one stop. When a shutter speed actuation is made faster (by the shutter's equivalent of a full stop), the amount of time that light plays on the chip is halved. Changing the shutter speed in this manner without a corresponding change in f-stop will yield an image underexposed by one stop FIGS 1.8-1.10). Canon...

Auto Exposure Bracketing AEB m

By changing the shutter speed or aperture automatically, the camera brackets the exposure up to 2 stops in 1 3-stop increments for three successive shots. This is called Auto Exposure Bracketing (AEB). By changing the shutter speed or aperture automatically, the camera brackets the exposure up to 2 stops in 1 3-stop increments for three successive shots. This is called Auto Exposure Bracketing (AEB).

Select a value using the left or right button

The correct exposure has been set if the shutter speed and aperture value show in white. If the shutter speed shows in red on the LCD monitor, the image is under exposed (insufficient light) or overexposed (too much light). Adjust the aperture value using the left and right buttons until the shutter speed display turns white. Please note that camera shake becomes a factor at low shutter speeds. If the camera shake warning U appears on the LCD monitor, secure the camera to a tripod before shooting. In this mode, the shutter speed range with synchronized flash is 1 60 second to 1 500 second. The aperture value setting may therefore be changed automatically to match the synchronized flash speed even if its value ' was set previously.

Select a speed using the left or right button

The correct exposure has been set if the shutter speed and o aperture value show in white. If the aperture value shows in red, the image is under exposed (insufficient light) or overexposed (too much light). Adjust the shutter speed using the left and right buttons until the aperture value display turns to white. The nature of CCD image sensors is such that noise in the recorded image increases at slow shutter speeds. This camera, however, applies special processing to images shot at shutter speeds slower than 1.3 seconds to eliminate the noise, thereby producing high-quality images. Nevertheless, a certain amount of processing time may be required before the next image can be shot. Please note that camera shake becomes a factor at low shutter speeds. If the camera shake warning U appears on the LCD monitor, secure the camera to a tripod before shooting. The aperture value and shutter speed change according to the zoom state as follows. Shutter Speed (seconds) The fastest shutter...

Image Information Displayed During PLAY

Aperture value ( 130, 136) Shutter speed ( 132, 136) Camera mode ( 20) Image number total images recorded Exposure compensation ( 95) Flash exposure compensation ( 95) (not displayed when flash not in use) ISO speed ( 55) Metering mode ( 66) White balance ( 68) Exposure compensation ( 95) Flash exposure compensation ( 95) (not displayed when flash not in use) ISO speed ( 55) Metering mode ( 66) White balance ( 68)

Tv Shutter Priority AE

In this mode, you set the shutter speed and the camera automatically sets the aperture value to suit the brightness of the subject. This is called Shutter-Priority AE. A fast shutter speed can freeze the motion of a fast-moving subject and a slow shutter speed can blur the subject to give the impression of motion. * < Tv> stands for Time value.

Basic information modes

Exposure Compensation Shutter speed Exposure Compensation Shutter speed Shutter speed and aperture (f-stop) Chapter 5 explains these two exposure settings. Exposure Compensation value This option, also detailed in Chapter 5, enables you to produce a brighter or darker image than the camera's autoexposure meter thinks appropriate. If you applied exposure compensation, the amount appears to the right of the f-stop. If you applied no exposure compensation, this area of the display is empty. Protect Using the Protect feature, described later in this chapter, you can lock an image to prevent it from being erased when you use the camera's Erase function. (Formatting the memory card does delete the picture, however, so use caution.) If you protect the photo, a little key icon appears next to the Exposure Compensation value. Otherwise, this part of the display is empty.

Taking Flash Pictures in Each Shooting Mode

(1) Press the shutter button down halfway to have the camera automatically set the shutter speed or aperture value, just as in normal picture-taking without flash. Shutter speed setting (3) The background exposure is determined by the shutter speed and aperture value. ram You can set the camera to apply a fixed shutter speed of 1 200 for flash photography in aperture-priority AE mode. (C.Fn-6 126)

Program Line Description

The lower horizontal axis represents the shutter speed, and the right-hand vertical axis 7 represents the aperture value. The combinations of shutter speed and aperture value automatically determined by Program AE are shown as colored lines with respect to the E subject brightness (Exposure Value) gradations on the left and top edges of the graph. f Example Using an EF50 F1.4 USM lens with a subject brightness of EV12, the point where m the diagonal line from EV12 (on the top edge) intersects the Program AE line C represents the corresponding shutter speed (1 350 second) and aperture value (f 3.5) that the program sets automatically.

Using Other EOSDedicated Speedlites

(1) When you press the shutter button halfway, the shutter speed and aperture are set automatically by the camera. Shutter Speed Setting Tv (Shutter speed-priority AE) (3) The background exposure is set by the shutter speed and aperture combination. r Flash exposure compensation can be set with the camera.

INFO Shooting Information Display

Exposure compensation amount Flash exposure compensation amount Aperture Shutter speed Metering mode Shooting mode When the 4 Highlight alert menu is set to Enable , overexposed highlight areas will blink. To obtain more image detail in the overexposed areas, set the exposure compensation to a negative amount and shoot again.

Using the Builtin Flash in the Creative Zone

Regardless of the light level, you can press the < D> button to pop-up and fire the built-in flash whenever desired. If the built-in flash has popped up, you can push it back down with your fingers. P For fully automatic flash photography. The shutter speed (1 250 sec. - 1 60 sec.) and aperture are set automatically. Tv Enables you to set the desired shutter speed (1 250 sec. -30 sec.). The flash exposure will be set automatically to match the aperture that was set automatically. Av Enables you to set the desired aperture. The flash exposure will be set automatically to match the aperture that was set. The shutter speed will be set automatically between 1 250 sec. -30 sec. to suit the scene's brightness. In low light, the main subject is exposed with the automatic flash, and the background is exposed with a slow shutter speed set automatically. Both the subject and background look properly exposed (automatic slow-speed flash sync). With slow shutter speeds, using a tripod is...

High Speed Sync FP Flash

When the 550EX Speedlite is set to high-speed sync (Vh) mode, it can automatically synchronize at any shutter speed of 1 200 second or faster, thus providing high-speed sync (FP) flash operation. When high-speed sync is On, the ( h) icon appears in the viewfinder. High-speed sync is effective for portrait photography in the following situations

Thinking Again About Full Auto Mode

Now that we've identified all the mechanisms that go into making an exposure, let's look again at the Full Auto mode that you've been shooting with. As you learned in Chapter 1, when you press the T1i shutter button halfway down, the camera focuses and calculates an exposure. That exposure is a shutter speed setting, aperture setting, and ISO choice. The camera has determined that these settings will yield an image that is neither too bright nor too dark. As you just learned, many combinations of shutter speed and aperture settings yield the same overall exposure. So how does the camera choose Its algorithms are designed to take the safest possible combination, that is, a shutter speed and aperture that will yield a good overall exposure, without risking handheld shake from a slow shutter speed or image softness from an extreme aperture.

My camera meters in P and Av modes very differently when I have a flash turned on

P (program) mode keeps the shutter speed between 1 60 sec and the maximum flash sync speed your camera can handle. It does this so that you shouldn't need a tripod, even if light levels are low. It then tries to illuminate the foreground using flash. Av (aperture priority) and Tv (shutter speed priority) modes set the shutter speed or aperture to expose for the existing light conditions correctly. They then fill in the foreground using flash. If light levels are low you will need a tripod to avoid blur. M (manual exposure) mode lets you set both aperture and shutter speed to be whatever you want. The camera then automatically controls the illumination of the foreground subject using flash.

Switching the Timing at which the Flash Fires

The flash fires right after the shutter opens, regardless of the shutter speed. Usually, the 1st-curtain is used when shooting. The flash fires right before the shutter closes, regardless of the shutter speed. Compared with the 1st-curtain, the flash fires later and this allows you to shoot images in which, for example, a car's rear lamps seem to trail off behind.

Putting It All Together

ISO, aperture, shutter speed, and the amount of light in a scene are the essential elements of photographic exposure. On a bright, sunny day, you can select from many different f-stops and still get fast shutter speeds to prevent image blur. You have little need to switch to a high ISO for fast shutter speeds at small apertures. As it begins to get dark, your choice of f-stops becomes limited at ISO 100 or 200. You need to use wide apertures, such as f 4 or wider, to get a fast shutter speed. Otherwise, your images will show some blur from camera shake or subject movement. Switch to ISO 400 or 800, however, and your options increase and you can select narrow apertures, such as f 8 or f 11, for greater depth of field. The higher ISO allows you to shoot at faster shutter speeds to reduce the risk of blurred images, but it also increases the chances of digital noise. 6.8 Practicing with aperture, shutter speed, and ISO combinations is the best way to learn how they work together to...

Reciprocal Exposures

SHUTTER SPEED Notice that, since we doubled the sensitivity of the sensor, we now require half as much exposure as before. We have also reduced our maximum aperture from f 2.8 to f 4 because the camera can't use a shutter speed that is faster than 1 4000 of a second. So why not just use the exposure setting of f 16 at 1 250 of a second Why bother with all of these reciprocal values when this one setting will give us a properly exposed image The answer is that the f-stop and shutter speed also control two other important aspects of our image motion and depth of field.

Scene Modes Revisited

Use a faster shutter speed to compensate (a wider aperture lets in more light, so you need a shorter exposure time). Landscape mode does the exact opposite from Portrait mode. It uses a smaller aperture (bigger number) to increase depth of field. This will usually result in a slower shutter speed. When the shutter speed drops below what the camera thinks is appropriate for handholding the camera at your current focal length, then it will flash the shutter speed readout as a warning. Sports mode aims for motion-stopping power, which you now know means faster shutter speed. It also activates Drive mode and Servo focus. Night Portrait mode activates the flash but also sets a shutter speed that's appropriate for exposing the scene without the flash. So, the flash fires to expose your subject in the foreground, but the long exposure properly exposes the background. Scene modes offer no manual overrides. You cannot use exposure compensation or change the ISO, white balance, metering, or...

Turn the Mode dial to line up M with the white mark on the camera

Turn the Main dial to the shutter speed that you want, and then press and hold the Aperture Exposure compensation (Av) button on the back of the camera as you turn the Main dial to set the aperture. If you want to use the camera's ideal exposure, then adjust the shutter speed or aperture until the tick mark is at the center of the exposure level index. You can also set the exposure above (to overexpose) or below (to underexpose) the ideal exposure. If the amount of under- or overexposure is + - 2 Exposure Values (EV), the exposure level indicator bar blinks to show the amount of plus or minus EV in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. You can then adjust either the aperture or shutter speed until the exposure level you want is displayed. A-DEP, or Automatic Depth of Field, mode automatically calculates the optimum depth of field between near and far subjects. A-DEP mode uses the camera's nine AF points to detect near and far subject distances, and then calculates the aperture needed...

Using the Builtin Flash

The flash exposure will be set automatically to match the aperture that was set. The shutter speed will set automatically between 30 sec. -1 200 sec. to suit the scene's brightness. In low light, the main subject is exposed with the automatic flash, and the background is exposed with a slow shutter speed set automatically. Both the subject and background look properly exposed (automatic slow-speed flash sync). If you are handholding the camera, keep it steady to prevent camera shake. Using a tripod is recommended. To prevent slow-speed sync, access the TT2 Custom Function (C.Fn) menu's Flash sync, speed in Av mode (p.104) and set it to 1 200sec. (fixed) .

Real World ISO Change

Let's say you're trying to shoot a close-up of a flower on a windy day. Your meter has recommended 1 125th of a second at f3.5. This is great because it gives you the shallow depth of field that you want, but it's so windy that 1 125th of a second is resulting in an image that's too blurry. If you increase the shutter speed by three stops to 1 1000, the image will be underexposed, because the camera's aperture can't be opened any further. But, if you increase the ISO from 100 to 800 (a three-stop difference), you'll have enough exposure latitude to make your shutter speed change and get your shot.

Quick Start With Program AE

For quick and easy picture-taking, use the Program AE mode. This mode sets both the shutter speed and aperture automatically to suit the subject's brightness. Anyone can easily take pictures in this mode. By using the focusing points in the wide area AF ellipse in the viewfinder, it is easy to compose and capture a variety of subjects. Shutter speed The shutter speed and aperture will be displayed on the LCD panel and in the viewfinder. Make sure the shutter speed and aperture are not blinking, then press the shutter button completely to take the picture. If the shutter speed or aperture blinks, it means a standard exposure cannot be obtained. Although the picture can be taken, it may come out too light or too dark. For details, see Exposure Warning List on page 130. If the shutter speed or aperture blinks, it means a standard exposure cannot be obtained. Although the picture can be taken, it may come out too light or too dark. For details, see Exposure Warning List on page 130. In...

Av Aperture Priority AE

In this mode, you set the desired aperture and the camera sets the shutter speed automatically to suit the subject brightness. This is called aperture-priority AE. The smaller the aperture (larger f number), the wider the depth of field (range of acceptable focus). The larger the aperture (smaller f number), the narrower the depth of field. * < Av> stands for Aperture value.

Locking the Flash Exposure Setting FE Lock

Changing shutter speed and aperture value combinations Automatically selected combinations of shutter speeds and aperture values can be freely changed without altering the exposure (Program Shift). 4 Use the control dial to change shutter speed and aperture valve combinations.

Chapter Assignments

For this first assignment, you need to find some action. Explore the relationship between the speed of an object and its direction of travel. Use the same shutter speed to record your subject moving toward you and across your view. Try using the same shutter speed for both to compare the difference made by the direction of travel. Just as with the first assignment, photograph a subject moving in different directions, but this time, use a wide-angle lens and then a telephoto. Check out how the telephoto setting on the zoom lens will require faster shutter speeds than the lens at its wide-angle setting. Panning is a great way to show motion. To begin, find a subject that will move across your path at a steady speed and practice following it in your viewfinder from side to side. Now, with the camera in Tv mode, set your shutter speed to 1 30 of a second and the focus mode to AI Servo. Now pan along with the subject and shoot as it moves across your view. Experiment with different shutter...

Press the Playback button

Press the AE Lock FE Lock Index button on the back of the camera. The camera displays the last image or images chimped, and the selected image is shown with a blue border. If the Index display shows only one or a few images, turn the Quick Control dial counterclockwise to move to the previous page of images. If you're using single image with shooting information or with basic shooting information, the Index display includes your shutter speed aperture combination with the selected image on the Index display.

Getting Creative with Exposure and Lighting

Getting a grip on aperture, shutter speed, and ISO Tweaking autoexposure with exposure compensation This chapter explains everything you need to know to start taking advantage of these five modes. First, you get an introduction to the critical exposure controls known as aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. Adjusting these settings enables you to not only fine-tune image exposure but also affect other aspects of your image, such as depth of field (the zone of sharp focus) and motion blur. In addition, this chapter explains other advanced exposure features, such as exposure compensation and metering modes, and discusses the flash options available to you in the advanced exposure modes. in-camera support and the information in this chapter, you can easily master aperture, shutter speed, and all the other exposure features an important step in making the shift from picture-taker to photographer.

Controlling flash exposure

In regular photography you have two basic ways by which to control the amount of ambient (available) light entering the camera and exposing the film. You can adjust the shutter speed, which affects the duration of the exposure since ambient light is essentially constant in this context. And you can adjust the lens aperture - the physical diaphragm on most lenses which governs the quantity of light that enters the lens. (you can also use different lenses, add filters to the lens and so on, but we're talking about the fundamental issues here) However, flash photography is quite different since it involves split-second bursts of light. A key point to remember in flash photography is that the shutter speed of the camera normally does not have any bearing on flash exposure - an exception being FP mode, mentioned later. Light from a continuous source is affected by shutter speeds, but flash bursts are so brief - in the milliseconds - that a mechanical shutter mechanism has no way of...

Xsync flash sync speed

Modern SLR camera shutters are equipped with a pair of moving curtains which wipe across the opening to the image area. They travel vertically because the travel distance is less than if they travelled horizontally, and there are two curtains to make fast shutter speeds possible. At high shutter speeds the opening is actually an open slit between the two curtains, travelling the height of the image area. This presents a problem with flash photography. If you have only a slit exposed at the time the flash happens to go off then you won't be able to illuminate the entire image area with the flash burst. An electronic flash burst is always much briefer than the fastest shutter speed motion that the shutter mechanism can achieve. Different cameras have different shutter designs - some are faster than others. But each camera will have a maximum shutter speed at which a flash burst will expose the full image area of the film. This maximum flash-compatible shutter speed is called X-sync...

Aperture Priority AE Av You Set the Aperture

In this mode, you set the desired aperture and the camera sets the shutter speed automatically to suit the subject brightness. The larger the aperture (smaller F-number like f 1.4) the more blurred the background will be. This effect is suited for portraits. The smaller the aperture (larger F-number like f 22), the clearer the focus will be for both near and far objects. The shutter speed and aperture will be displayed. Check the shutter speed and take the picture. As long as the shutter speed is not blinking, a standard exposure will be obtained. If the shutter speed is less than the reciprocal of the lens focal length (i.e. 1 200 for a 200mm lens), camera shake may cause a blurred picture. If the 30 shutter speed blinks, it indicates underexposure. Turn the dial to set a larger aperture (smaller F-number) until the shutter speed stops blinking. If the 8000 shutter speed blinks, it indicates aperture (larger F-number) until the shutter speed stops Custom Function CF-16 (see page 120)...

Fn Shutter curtain sync

When a slow shutter speed is set, you can capture a light trail following the subject. The flash fires right before the shutter closes. This Custom Function can be used to obtain 2nd-curtain sync effects even with EX-serie Speedlites which do not have this feature. If the EX-serr s Speedlite has this feature, it will override this Custom Function.

Q What Can I Expect To Learn From This Book

A Hopefully, you will learn how to take great photographs. My goal, and the reason the book is laid out the way it is, is to guide you through the basics of photography as they relate to different situations and scenarios. By using the features of your T2i and this book, you will learn about aperture, shutter speed, ISO, lens selection, depth of field, and many other photographic concepts. You will also find plenty of large full-page photos that include captions, shooting data, and callouts so you can see how all of the photography fundamentals come together to make great images. All the while, you will be learning how your camera works and how to apply its functions and features to your photography.

Using Priority Modes to Control Exposure

The Exposure Compensation and Program Shift controls are both great ways to control exposure, but there will be times when you'll want more direct control. Shutter and Aperture Priority let you select specific shutter speeds or apertures and leave the camera on those settings. So, for example, if you're shooting landscapes and know that you're going to want a deep depth of field all day long, you can set the camera on Aperture Priority, dial in f 11, and be assured that every shot will be taken with that aperture. Or, if you're shooting a sporting event and know that you want lots of motion-stopping power, you can select Shutter Priority and set the shutter speed to something quick, like 1 1000th of a second.

Dim interiors and exteriors

At a certain point, the lighting level is too low for the above approach. When I can't obtain enough available light illumination to use a fast enough shutter speed or have the aperture stopped down to maintain sharp enough images, I go to plan B manually choose the f-stop and shutter speed that will work for me, don't worry about the background going dark, and shoot away utilizing my Speedlite as the primary lighting source. I use various modifiers in this case

Capturing scenic vistas

1 If the exposure requires a slow shutter, use a tripod to avoid blurring. The downside to a high f-stop is that you need a slower shutter speed to produce a good exposure. If the shutter speed drops below what you can comfortably hand-hold for me, that's about 1 50 second use a tripod to avoid picture-blurring camera shake. No tripod handy Look for any solid surface on which you can steady the camera. You can always increase the ISO setting to increase light sensitivity, which in turn allows a faster shutter speed, too, but that option brings with it the chances of increased image noise. See Chapter 5 for details. For cool nighttime city pics, experiment with slow shutter. Assuming that cars or other vehicles are moving through the scene, the result is neon trails of light like those you see in the foreground of the image in Figure 7-10, taken by my friend Jonathan Conrad. Shutter speed for this image was 8 seconds. Figure 7-9 For misty waterfalls, use a slow shutter speed (and...

Shutter Release Button

In Manual Mode, you can use the Quick Control Dial and the Main Control Dial to move shutter speed and aperture until the Exposure Level Indicator is centered or otherwise where you want it to be. If you're using a lens with Image Stabilization, it is also activated by a half-press of the shutter button.

Why There Are Two Ways to Control Light

If brightness were your only concern, then yes, one mechanism would be enough, but because of the way the physics of light works, there can be a big difference in your final image depending on whether you try to control exposure using shutter speed or aperture. In fact, after compositional choices, the bulk of your creative power as a photographer comes from how you choose to manipulate these two controls.

Chapter The Fundamentals of Light and Exposure

Sensitivity The role of ISO Intensity The role of the aperture Wide aperture Narrow aperture Choosing an aperture What is depth of field Time The role of Shutter Speed Equivalent Exposures Putting It All Together Let There Be Light Exploring Flash Technology Using the Onboard Flash Disabling the flash but enabling the flash's autofocus-assist beam Red-eye reduction Modifying Flash Exposure Flash Exposure Lock Flash Exposure Compensation Using Flash Control Options Using One or More Accessory Speedlites

Manual M exposure mode flash

In manual exposure mode you specify both the aperture and shutter speed, and your exposure settings will determine how the background (ambient lighting) is exposed. The subject, however, can still be illuminated by the automatic flash metering system since the flash can automatically calculate flash output levels for you. This is a marked contrast to the olden days, when photographers would carry around little flash exposure tables with them in order to work out manual flash settings. Set the aperture and shutter speed to expose the background correctly.

Tv shutter priority mode flash

In this mode the camera lets you change the shutter speed. It then automatically chooses an aperture setting to expose the background correctly. Flash duration (flash output) is determined by the flash metering system. In other words, the camera always works in fill flash mode when it's in Tv mode - it always tries to expose the background adequately, unlike P mode. If the maximum aperture value of your lens starts flashing in the viewfinder it means the background of the scene you're shooting is too dimly lit. If you want to try and expose the background then you should decrease the shutter speed to compensate. Otherwise the camera will just try and expose the foreground with flash and the background will come out dark. Naturally at slower shutter speeds you'll need to use a tripod to avoid blurring caused by camera shake. The 420EZ and 430EZ flash units will operate in A-TTL mode in Tv mode, but the 540EZ works only in TTL mode. Note also that some people have reported that in this...

PAperture and Depth of Field

A camera's aperture is composed of thin metal blades that, when the shutter is actuated (and at any f-stop other than its widest), move together in less than a blink of an eye to form a circle corresponding to the chosen f-stop. After the chosen shutter speed has expired, and the shutter has been closed, they move back to their zero position to wait for the next actuation. FIG 1.5 At f2.8, the shutter speed is high enough to freeze any movement, and the background is so soft that the subject stands out nicely

The LCD Status Display

When you half-press the shutter button to tell the camera to focus and meter, it displays its chosen shutter speed and aperture at the top of the status display. We'll explore what these mean in later chapters. After you half-press the shutter button, the status screen will show your shutter speed and aperture.

Raising The Iso The Simple Solution

And what about a tripod in combination with a long shutter speed That is also an option, and we'll cover it a little further into the chapter. The problem with using a tripod and a slow shutter speed in low-light photography, though, is that it performs best when subjects aren't moving. Besides, try to set up a tripod in a museum and see how quickly you grab the attention of the security guards.

Exposure Control for Video

You can use the T1i's Exposure Compensation control when shooting video, just as you do when shooting stills. If bright objects in your scene are blowing out to complete white, you might want to dial in a negative exposure compensation. Similarly, if a bright sky is causing shadow areas to underexpose, then you might want to dial in a positive exposure compensation. Unfortunately, there's no way to choose a shutter speed or aperture when shooting video, which means you can't force the camera to shoot with shallow depth of field. If you're really serious about video, then there is a workaround to this problem, which is to buy an old Nikon lens (that's right, Nikon) that has a manual aperture ring, and then fit it to the Rebel using a Canon to Nikon adapter. This will allow you to control aperture manually.

Decoding Shooting Information data

Basic Information data The file number, folder number, aperture, shutter speed, frame number, and total number of images appear in the same locations as in Basic Information mode. i Exposure and Flash Compensation values To the right of the aperture readout, you see the exposure compensation and flash compensation settings that were used to take the picture. Chapter 5 explains these features, which are available only in the advanced exposure modes. (The flash compensation data does not appear if you didn't use flash when taking the picture, however.)

Subjecttocamera Distance

Although the traffic is moving at the same speed, the shorter distance between you and the traffic makes the cars look like they are moving much faster. This is because your field of view is much narrower therefore, the subjects are not going to present themselves within the frame for the same length of time. The concept of distance applies to the length of your lens as well (Figure 5.3). If you are using a wide-angle lens, you can probably get away with a slower shutter speed than if you were using a telephoto, which puts you in the heart of the action. It all has to do with your field of view. That telephoto gets you closer to the action and the closer you are, the faster your subject will be moving across your viewfinder. Due to the distance from the camera, a slower shutter speed could be used to capture this action. Due to the distance from the camera, a slower shutter speed could be used to capture this action.

Understanding your cameras approach to flash

With fill flash, the background is exposed primarily by ambient light, and the flash adds a little extra illumination to the subject. Fill flash typically produces brighter backgrounds and, often, softer lighting of the subject because not as much flash power is needed. The downside is that if the ambient light is dim, as in my nighttime photo, you need a slow shutter speed to properly expose the image, and both the camera and the subject must remain very still to avoid blurring. The shutter speed for my fill-flash image was 1 30 second, for example. Fortunately, I had a tripod, and the deer didn't seem inclined to move. So how does this little flash lesson relate to your camera Well, the exposure mode you use (P, Tv, Av, M, or A-DEP) determines whether the flash operates as a fill flash or as the primary light source. The exposure mode also controls the extent to which the camera adjusts the aperture and shutter speed in response to the ambient light in the scene. 1 P In this mode,...

Taking Your Photography To The Next Level

The Creative zone is the name given by Canon to the shooting modes that offer you the greatest amount of control over your photography. To anyone who has been involved with photography for any period of time, these modes are known as the backbones of photography. They allow you to influence two of the most important factors in taking great photographs aperture and shutter speed. To access these modes, you simply turn the Mode dial to the Creative mode of your choice and begin shooting. But wouldn't it be nice to know exactly what those modes control and how to make them do our bidding Well, if you really want to take that next step in controlling your photography, it is essential that you understand not only how to control these modes, but why you are controlling them. So let's move that Mode dial to the first of our Creative modes Program mode.

Getting the Most from This Book

In Chapter 6, those who are new to photography can get an overview on the basics of photographic exposure including an introduction to ISO, aperture, shutter speed, and the types and characteristics of light, and how these elements work together to create a good exposure.

Wireless Transmission and

The 580EX II, along with the EOS-1Ds Mark III, can operate in high-speed sync mode, allowing you to record images beyond the maximum sync speed of 1 250th second. (The 430 EX II and the 430 EX can do this as well.) This is particularly useful when shooting portraits in aperture priority mode, or other instances when you want to have a wide aperture to soften the background, and thus you'll have a shorter shutter speed to contend with.

Table Night and Low Light Photography

Additional Considerations Aperture-priority AE mode gives you control over the depth of field. If you can't stabilize the camera, you may want to use Tv mode and get a reasonable handholding shutter speed and make necessary adjustments to the ISO to achieve it. Low-light scenes are also an opportunity to use Mirror Lockup which you can enable using C.Fn III-7 and one of the Self-timer modes or a remote cable release. For outdoor low-light and night shooting, I also turn on Long Exposure Noise Reduction using C.Fn II-1.

Selecting The Proper

One of the downfalls of A-DEP mode is the use of ISO to change exposure settings. When shooting most landscape scenes, the ISO is the one factor that should only be changed as a last resort. While it is easy to select a higher ISO to get a smaller aperture, the noise that it can introduce into your images can be quite harmful (Figures 7.4 and 7.5). The noise is not only visible as large grainy artifacts, it can also be multicolored, which further degrades the image quality. Take a look at the image in Figure 7.4, which was taken with an ISO of 1600. The purpose was to shorten the shutter speed and still use a small aperture setting of f 22. The problem is that the noise level is so high that, in addition to being distracting, it is obscuring fine details in the canyon wall.

How Aperture Choice Affects Your Image

Just as you'll make shutter speed choices to control motion stopping, sometimes you'll need to consider how depth of field can be used to better express the subject or scene you're shooting. For instance, in the dandelion example, if you knew you wanted to shoot it with shallow depth of field, you would opt for a wider aperture, which means a smaller number. With the Tli's kit lens, then, you would try to get an aperture value that's as low as possible.

Learning about RAW Capture

RAW capture allows you to save the data that comes off the image sensor with virtually no internal camera processing. The only camera settings that the camera applies to a RAW image are ISO, shutter speed, and aperture. And because many of the camera settings have been noted but not applied in the camera, you have the opportunity to make changes to settings including image brightness, white balance, contrast, and saturation when you convert the RAW image data into a final image using a conversion program such as Canon's Digital Photo Professional, Adobe Camera Raw, Adobe Lightroom, or Apple Aperture.

Perspective Depth of field

Photo 5 shows that under the same shooting conditions, the smaller the aperture is made, the wider the depth of field becomes. In addition, the range in focus is a ratio of approximately 1 2 with the range being shallower in front and deeper behind the actual focusing distance. Further, the blurring of the area away from the depth of field produces different photographic effects depending on the lens that is used, so it is important to use this effect skillfully far behind the subject. Conversely, using a telephoto lens there appears to be very little distance between the two, which gives the photograph a compressed feeling. In other words, comparing the apparent distance between the subject and the background as the focusing distance and the focal length of the lens are varied shows how perspective is created. For this reason, even when you want to keep the person the same size, use a wide-angle lens when you want to have a panoramic background, and a telephoto lens when you want to...

Working with Short Exposures

You can have a lot of fun exploring the kinds of pictures you can take using very brief exposure times, whether you decide to take advantage of the action-stopping capabilities of your built-in or external electronic flash or work with the Canon EOS 40D's faster shutter speeds. Here are a few ideas to get you started Take revealing images. Fast shutter speeds can help you reveal the real subject behind the fa ade, by freezing constant motion to capture an enlightening moment in time. Legendary fashion portrait photographer Philippe Halsman used leaping photos of famous people, such as the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, Richard Nixon, and Salvador Dali to illuminate their real selves. Halsman said, When you ask a person to jump, his attention is mostly directed toward the act of jumping and the mask falls so that the real person appears. Try some high-speed portraits of people you know in motion to see how they appear when concentrating on something other than the portrait. Vanquish...

Singlefocallength lenses

Unlike zoom lenses, single-focal-length (prime) lenses tend to be fast with maximum apertures of f 2.8 or wider. Wide apertures allow faster shutter speeds and enable you to handhold the camera in lowlight and still get a sharp image. Compared to zoom lenses, single-focal-length lenses are noticeably lighter and smaller.

Press the Shutter button halfway down and then turn the Quick Control dial clockwise to set a positive compensation or

3.8 Snow-dominated scenes are a perfect example of when to use exposure compensation to counteract the camera's natural tendency to expose for middle gray. ISO 100, f 16, 1 200 sec., +1.5 exposure compensation, with an EF 24-70mm f 2.8L USM lens. 3.8 Snow-dominated scenes are a perfect example of when to use exposure compensation to counteract the camera's natural tendency to expose for middle gray. ISO 100, f 16, 1 200 sec., +1.5 exposure compensation, with an EF 24-70mm f 2.8L USM lens.

Autoexposure Bracketing AEB

With autoexposure bracketing, the camera automatically changes the exposure level within the set range for three successive frames. The bracketing amount centers on the standard exposure (or exposure compensation setting), and the exposure can be varied up to 3 stops in 1 3-stop increments. The three bracketed shots are exposed in the following sequence standard exposure, underexposure, and overexposure. The film advances in the current film advance mode (see Switching the Film Advance Mode on page 85). The bracketing amount is indicated numerically and shown on the exposure compensation scale on the LCD panel.

When shooting indoors try not to use flash as your primary light

Because you'll be shooting at close range, the light from your flash may be too harsh even at a low Flash Exposure Compensation setting. If flash is inevitable, turn on as many room lights as possible to reduce the flash power that's needed even a hardware-store shop light can do in a pinch as a lighting source. (Remember that if you have multiple light sources, though, you may need to tweak the white balance setting.)

Using Fully Automatic Wireless Flash

Flash exposure compensation and other settings set with the master unit will also be automatically set in the slave units. Thus, you need not make settings on the slave unit(s). Wireless flash with the following settings can be done in the same way as with normal flash shooting. Flash exposure compensation FEB

Download Instructions for Trick Photography And Special Effects

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